1. (a) In the formula describing the average normal stress (ơ) in an axially loaded bar, provide the definition of N. Also, which method is typically used to determine N in a given problem? (b) The figure below shows a welded V butt joint of two bars. Focusing on section AB of the weld, calculate the resultant normal and shear force components on the face AB.

Fig: 1

Fig: 2

Fig: 3