Subject | Kinematics of Machines |

Kinematics of Machines - Mechanical Engineering

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A Brief about
  For the study of kinematics of machines, a machine may be referred to as a mechanism, which is a combination of interconnected rigid bodies capable of relative motion. During the study of kinematics of machines, the idea of motion or relative motion predominates and the idea of force takes a back sit. A machine is a combination of rigid or resistant bodies, formed and connected so that they move with definite relative motions and transmit force from the source of power to the resistance to be overcome. It has two functions: transmitting definite relative motion and transmitting force. These functions require strength and rigidity to transmit the forces. In kinematics of machines, a mechanism is a constrained kinematic chain. This means that the motion to any one link will give a predictable motion of other links relatively. A constrained kinematic chain is a kinematic mechanism. In a mechanism, by fixing any one of the links, we get different mechanisms which are called as inversions of the mechanism. For example, the inversions of slider-crank mechanism are hand pump, Whitworth quick return mechanism, slotted-lever quick return motion mechanism, oscillating cylinder engine etc,. Kinematic links are names given to a body which has relative motion with respect to one another. Every material has some elasticity, but a rigid link is a link whose deformations are small in determining the motion parameters of the link. There three types of links- binary, ternary, quaternary. In kinematic of machines, there are different types of kinematic pairs classified based on nature of contact between elements, based on relative motion between the pairing elements, based on the nature of mechanical constraint. In kinematics of machines, the number of inputs required to  describe the position of all the links of the mechanism is defined as degrees of freedom. The inversions of a double slider crank mechanism gives elliptical trammel, scotch yoke mechanism, Oldham coupling. A few four bar mechanisms provide straight line mechanism like Robert’s mechanism. In kinematics of machines, there are mechanism like geneva mechanism which converts continuous motion to intermittent motion commonly used for indexing in machine tools. Rachet and pawl mechanism converts rotational or translational motion into intermittent motion. There are other mechanisms like toggle mechanism, pantograph, universal joint. These mechanism have a great application in today’s world like in automobile sector(I.C. engines, steering wheel, power transmission, brakes), industries etc. Kinematic of machines also contains cams and followers. A cam is mechanical device used to transmit motion to a follower by direct contact. The driver is called the cam and the driven member is called the follower. A familiar example is the camshaft of an automobile engine where the cams drive the push rods(the followers) and to open and close the valves in synchronization with the motion of the pistons. Cams are classified based on their physical shape into disk cam, cylindrical cam, translating cam.
  Various types of followers based on surface in contact are knife edge follower, roller follower, flat faced follower, spherical follower; based on type of motion  are oscillating follower, translating follower; based on line of motion are radial follower, off-set follower. The follower motion would generally be uniform velocity, modified uniform velocity, uniform acceleration and deceleration, simple harmonic motion, cycloidal motion.
  Gear trains are also a part of kinematics of machines. Gear train is two or more gears working together by meshing their teeth and turning each other in a system to generate power and speed. It reduces speed and increases torque. To create large gear ratio gears are connected to form gear trains. There are simple, compounded, epycylcic, reverted, cycloidal gear trains having different purposes.  There are different types of gears: spur gear, worm gear, Herringbone gear, bevel gear, helical gear, face gear, internal and external gears etc,. These gears are used based on the requirement of method of motion transmission.

   A machine is a combination of rigid or resistant bodies, formed and connected do that they move with definite relative motions and transmit force from the source of power to the resistance to be overcome. A machine has two functions: transmitting definite relative motion and transmitting force.  These functions require strength and rigidity to transmit the forces.”
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