Material Science as a discipline which deals with the study of the structure of material, property of material, and its application in various structural and machine parts. If we go back in history, we will find the prominent knowledge of materials in the Stone age, Bronze age, and Iron age. Awareness of material science during these eras had contributed in human beings’ socio-economic life. Soon, with the knowledge of metallurgy made life of human being easier which is still evident from monumental structure and large pillars that we see today. Today, Material science has given the vistas of opportunity for the development on technological sphere as well as infrastructural front. In the 19th century material science got focused attention with the study of thermodynamics property of materials. Soon during world wars necessity of weapons sustaining the adverse climate conditions had risen, which paved the way for modern material science. In almost all the discipline of engineering and technology material science becomes inalienable, invaluable, and significant part. One of the ancient methods in the development of materials like composites can be seen profoundly. Study of metals, most importantly steel have got large attention in the past few centuries which is now being replaced by other materials like ceramics, composites as well as plastics also. Recent development of material science and engineering as a discipline have included all possible components of studies that is done in the material science. These components of material science include polymer science, physical, organic and inorganic chemistry, minerology, glass, ceramics, composites, solid state physics etc. Some of the materials like Aluminium, Portland cement, vulcanised rubber, silver based photographic processes invented in 19th century is significant. Material science have been contributing to establish the next generation science standards. Some of the research driven approach in material science is going to give new technological reach for the scientific community. Material science have played very significant role in the field of electronic, optics, and communication devices. Today material science has played vital role in study of biodegradable materials which has been widely used in the field of medicine, pharmaceutical and environment. Today in the modern technology specially in space technology where size and weight of the material is major constraint in its advancement. Material Science and Technology have studied how shape and size of the material affects its properties and research and development in the field have introduced the materials at the nanoscale. This development in the material science have given the birth of nanotechnology which deals with how nanomaterials are made and applied in the new modern space technology as well as other modern technologies. If we think about the modern era in which electronic brain that runs the world. A small chip holds our conversation, stores huge data, and gives solution to the complex problems of the science and technology. Computers were developed long time ago but miniaturization of the computer have enhanced the capacity, capability as well as intellectual strength. Semiconductor materials like silicon and others have significantly reduced the size of electronic devices. Industrial application of material science is seen to bring the perfection in presently used materials. Efficiency of manufacturing processes like casting, turning, boring, drilling, finishing, welding, and other design of the materials have been enhanced due to vital and significant contribution of research and development in the field of material science and engineering. Material science is evolving faster than ever before, that is why contribution of material science in the future technology is significant. Best Scientist and engineers around the world are constantly working hard by applying the fundamentals of material science to bring the humanity in next new level. Understanding the strength of materials play very important role in the safety of human beings from its own great scientific creations. We seen a lot of structural failure, satellite failure in during space mission. It is very vital to understand the effect of adverse loading conditions on the materials, which is done by extensive research and development in the field of material science and engineering. Protecting human beings from their own creation as well as taking the technology to the new heights, considering sky as the limit material science have contributed significantly.
Abdul kalam technical University
Delhi Technological University
Indian Institute of Information Technology Design and Manufacturing Kancheepuram
N K S
G J R
Jabalpur Engineering College
Galgotias college of engineering and technology