Organic Chemistry is a part of chemistry which focuses on the scientific study of structure, properties, and reactions of organic compounds and organic materials. Organic Chemistry is the study of carbon containing compounds and their reactions and preparation. Scientifically, organic chemistry is the study of structures, properties and reactions etc of the organic compounds. Organic compounds are the compounds which contains carbon as their main constituent. Therefore, study of the structure and properties of organic compounds is known as organic chemistry. There is a multitude of carbon compounds present in the nature, so there is a need to organize all of them so that their study becomes easier and thus, in organic chemistry, carbon compounds are classified on the basis of their characteristics on a vast scale. Around 19th century, it was strongly assumed that the organic compounds, the main constituents in organic chemistry, are only produced by the nature itself and this theory was named as 'vital force' according to which life forces are responsible for producing organic compounds and thus, organic compounds can't be produced by any other means and therefore, organic chemistry was limited to the study of natural products. But, all of this was proven wrong by the scientist named Friedrich Wohler who produced the organic chemical urea, also known as carbamide, from inorganic starting materials which were potassium cyanate and ammonium sulphate, following a process which is now called as the Wohler synthesis. Friedrich Wohler is now considered as the father of organic chemistry as he synthesized the organic compound urea form inorganic compounds in laboratory. After this discovery, many more organic compounds were produced like organic dye, aspirin and so on. Therefore, it was now been proved that organic compound can be synthesized and now in present time, synthesis of a large number of organic compound has taken place and scientists are still working on it. Carbon itself gives us a large number of compounds or we can say giant molecules such as graphite, diamond, Buckminster fullerene and many more. Hydrogen and oxygen also play a vital role in organic chemistry, in addition to carbon, such as hydrocarbons, which contains carbon and hydrogen, carbohydrates containing carbon with hydrogen and oxygen and many more compounds studied in organic chemistry. chemistry of carbon Organic Chemistry is generally considered the chemistry of carbon containing compounds, which is often rephrased as ' all organic compounds contain carbon ' there are some carbon containing compounds which are not considered as organic such as carbonates and cyanides and therefore they are not studied in organic chemistry. Organic chemistry is considered as a basis of earthly life. Study of organic chemistry is necessary as it is the study of life. In organic chemistry, chemical reactions related to life are studied briefly, therefore, organic chemistry is known as the fundamental course for life sciences and chemical engineering. Some of the most important topics in organic chemistry are isomerism, general organic chemistry, hydrocarbons, carbohydrates, functional groups such as alcohol, aldehydes, amines and many more which also forms the basics of study in organic chemistry. Organic Compounds can be classified as Functional groups, Aliphatic Compounds, AromaticCompounds, Heterocyclic Compounds, Polymers, Biomolecules, and Fullerenes. Few examples of Compounds of Organic Chemistry are Nucleic Acids, Proteins, Lipids, and Hydrocarbons There are many Applications of Organic Chemistry such as Analysis. Synthesis and for better molecule. This branch of chemistry is not only finite to compounds that were produced by living organisms but also has been widespread to incorporate man-made substances namely plastics. It is vastly used in the industries in various forms of rubber, vitamins, cloth, and paper made from organically based compounds. If organic chemistry cease to exist Aspirins and all types of other drugs; preservatives that keep food from spoiling; perfumes and toiletries; dyes and flavorings—all these things would have to go as well. Synthetic fibers such as nylon—used in everything from toothbrushes to parachutes—would be out of the picture if it were not for the enormous progress made by organic chemistry. This is will be also true for plastics or polymers in general, which have literally hundreds upon hundreds of applications. Indeed, it is practically impossible for a person in this modern era to spend an entire day without coming into contact with at least one and more likely dozens, of plastic products. Car parts, toys, computer housings, Velcro fasteners, PVC (polyvinyl chloride) plumbing pipes, and many more fixtures of modern life are all made possible by plastics and polymers. After that there is the vast range of petrochemicals that are extracted from crude oil that power modern civilization. Best-known among these is gasoline, but there is also coal, one of the most significant fuels used in electrical power plants, as well as natural gas and various other forms of fuel used either directly or indirectly in providing heat, light, and electric power to household. If we take example of the roofing materials and tar that (quite literally) keep a roof over people's heads, protecting them from sun and rain, are the product of petrochemicals—and ultimately, of organic chemistry.
Indian Institute of technology Delhi
Goenka college of commerce and BA