1. (a) What is the pH of an aqueous solution of 0.043 M NaOH(a strong base). Show all your calculations and reasoning. (b) (i) What is the pH a solution containing 0.0075 M butanoic acid and 0.085 M sodium butanoate? The Ka of butanoic acid is 1.5 x 10^-5. (ii) Is this solution an effective buffer? Explain your reasoning. (c) 40 cm^3 of 0.15 M lactic acid (a monobasic acid with pKa = 3.85) was titrated with 0.2 M NaOH. (i) What is the initial pH? (ii) What is the pH at the equivalence point? (iii) What is the pH after 50 cm^3 of the NaOH is added? (d) Limonene has the formula CH3C6H8CCH2CH3. Using the Cahn-Ingold-Prelog approach, draw the structure of(R)-Limonene, showing its stereochemistry clearly and labelling the chiral centre. (e) What is the hybrization of the carbon atom of the C=0(carbonyl) group in lactic acid?

Fig: 1

Fig: 2

Fig: 3

Fig: 4

Fig: 5

Fig: 6

Fig: 7

Fig: 8

Fig: 9