1 confirm that the luminosities of these quasars column l in the data
1. Confirm that the luminosities of these quasars (column L in the data frame) are not
consistent with being sampled from a normal distribution using a formal test, and provide a
p-value (or limiting p-value). Confirm that this is also holds for the logarithms of the
luminosities (and provide a p-value).
2. Plot a histogram, and a Q-Q plot (with normal line), of the luminosities. In what manner
does the distribution of this quantity differ from normal?
3. Plot a histogram, and a Q-Q plot (with normal line), of the logarithm-transformed
luminosities. In what manner does the distribution of this quantity differ from normal?
Hint: To save space in your PDF, consider plotting the histogram and Q-Q plots side by side.
You do not have to subdivide by type for questions 1-3.
4. Plot the empirical cumulative distribution functions of the logarithm-transformed
luminosities for type C and type D individually, using two separate curves on the same plot.
Make sure the functions are appropriately sampled. Label the axes informatively, use a
different colour for the two curves, and provide a legend.
5. Use an appropriate two-sample test to test the hypothesis that the luminosities of quasar
sample C and quasar sample D were drawn from the same distribution. State your
conclusion and quote a p-value.
For questions 6-9 below, once again consider all quasars together (not subdivided by type).
6. Calculate the average quasar abundance A (for all quasars) using the above equation.
7. Perform a bootstrap (any version) to estimate a 95% confidence interval on the value of A.
8. Stratify the quasar sample by subdividing it into four luminosity bins: 1 ≤L < 10, 10 ≤L<
100, 100 ≤L < 1000, and 1000's L < 10¹. Then, calculate the estimated value of A and an
associated confidence interval for each of these four groups. Output your results as a table
with five columns: bin minimum L, bin maximum L, estimate of A, lower CI on A, upper Cl on
A. Use an appropriate number of significant figures on all values.
9. Make a plot of your result from the previous question, graphically showing your confidence
intervals as error bars on each binned point. Both the x-axis and y-axis should be
logarithmic (in L and A, respectively).
*The amount will be in form of wallet points that you can redeem to pay upto 10% of the price for any assignment. **Use of solution provided by us for unfair practice like cheating will result in action from our end which may include permanent termination of the defaulter’s account.Disclaimer:The website contains certain images which are not owned by the company/ website. Such images are used for indicative purposes only and is a third-party content. All credits go to its rightful owner including its copyright owner. It is also clarified that the use of any photograph on the website including the use of any photograph of any educational institute/ university is not intended to suggest any association, relationship, or sponsorship whatsoever between the company and the said educational institute/ university. Any such use is for representative purposes only and all intellectual property rights belong to the respective owners.