2. (20 pts) An orifice meter is used to measure the volume flow rate in a pipe. It takes 12 readings (in m/s): 0.0182,0.0188, 0.0179, 0.0183, 0.0182, 0.0176, 0.0191, 0.0185,

0.0184, 0.0180, 0.0178, and 0.0186. The true volume flowrate is 0.017920 m³/s. (a) Estimate the bias error (also called the systematic error) of the instrument. (b) For each reading, estimate the accuracy error (inaccuracy). (c) For each reading, estimate the precision error. (d) Calculate the sum of all the inaccuracies and the sum of all the precision errors. Can you find some significance to these sums? Discuss. (e) Calculate the mean bias error of all the readings as a percentage.

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