Question

2. In this problem,biomass.we will analyze real data for a process to produce renewable chemicals from The reaction can be written R(a q)+H_{2}(g) \rightarrow P(a q) where R is the organic reactant and P is the product. This is an irreversible reaction. Reactions were carried out in a constant-volume stainless-steel, high-pressure batch reactor. The reactor was charged with 35-40 mL of the reactant solution (at a given concentration in water) and sealed. After removing air in the reactor with inert gas, pure H₂ gas was added to the reactor at room temperature (20 °C), filling the reactor gas head space (head space volume = 250 mL). Once the reactor was heated to reaction temperature, the concentration of the reactant R was monitored by taking samples from the reactor over time and analyzing their concentration by HPLC. R and P are dilute solutions in water, so you can ignore any changes in solution volume with time. The experimental data for this problem is in the attached Excel sheet. A platinum catalyst was used in all experiments, and the mass of catalyst used for each experiment is provided in the Excel file. In this problem, you will need to report reaction rates normalized per catalyst mass, in units of mol/hr/g catalyst. a) Compute the rate with units of mol/L/hr (from the concentration data), then use the provided liquid volume and catalyst mass to convert this to a rate per mass of catalyst (mol/hr/gcatalyst). Consider the following set of reaction conditions: Initial R concentration, CRO = 1500 mmol/L with a liquid volume of 40 mL Initial H₂ pressure, 1000 psig (charged at room temperature, 20 °C) with a headspace volume of 250 mL b) Which is the limiting reactant, R or H₂? Calculate the maximum conversion of the excess reactant. You can assume that the H₂ solubility in the liquid phase is negligible (i.e. the full amount of H₂ is in the gas phase). You should find that the excess reagent be treated as"differential" because its concentration does not change much during the experiment. The student running the experiments first wants to assess the reaction order with respect to H₂, so they keep temperature and CRO fixed and vary the H₂ pressure (Excel, experiments 1-3). Calculate the H₂reaction order using the differential method: c) Calculate the initial reaction rates ro (mol/hr/gecatalyst) for each p10 from the concentration vs time date d) Construct a log-log kinetic plot to calculate the H₂ reaction order. What is the H₂ reaction order? e) The student's supervisor suggests that they could speed up the rate of the reaction 3x by runningthe reaction at 3x higher H₂ pressures. Do you agree? Why or why not? Next, the student wants to assess the reaction order with respect to R, the liquid-phase reactant. They measured the concentration of R over time starting from an initial concentration of CRO= 752 mM (Excel,experiment 4). They hypothesize that this reaction is either 0, 1st, or 2nd order with respect to R. Gadsf) Fit their concentration vs time data to three integral kinetic models to determine which model best fits the data. Linearize all three models and show plots where the y-axis is a linearized function of concentration, the x-axis is time. g) Identify which of these three models best fits the experimental data and report the resulting rate constant with correct units (note that the rate should have unis of mol/hr/gcatalyst). You can ignore any terms associated with PH₂ in the rate equation because the pressure of H₂ is kept constant.. Next, the student, wants to assess the apparent activation energy, Eapp, so they keep the H₂ pressure and reactant concentration Cro fixed and vary the temperature (Excel, experiments 5-7). Note that the apparent activation energy is defined as dln(r)/d(). -h) Use the differential method to calculate the initial rate (mol/hr/gcatalyst) at each temperature i) Create an Arrhenius plot and use it to determine Eapp

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