Question

5. 8.21 In the final stages of production, a pharmaceutical is sterilized by heating it from 25to 75°C as it moves at 0.2 m/s through a straight thin-walled stainless steel

tube of 12.7-mmdiameter. A uniform heat flux is maintained by an electric resistance heater wrapped around the outer surface of the tube. If the tube is 10 m long, what is the required heat flux?If fluid enters the tube with a fully developed velocity profile and a uniform temperature profile, what is the surface temperature at the tube exit and at a distance of 0.5 m from the entrance? Fluid properties may be approximated as p = 1000 kg/m², cp = 4000 J/kg-K,u = 2 x 10 3 kg/s-m, k = 0.8 W/m-K, and Pr = 10.

Fig: 1