5. One of the most common reaction pathways involving carbonyl groups that you studied in this course starts with the attack of the group by a nucleophile (Nu ). Draw

the mechanism of this first step forming the tetrahedral adduct (intermediate) using arrows to show electron flow. Often the nucleophilic attack is the rate determining step of the entire reaction. Briefly explain what factors determine the rate of nucleophilic attack on C=O?

Fig: 1