At room temperature the relationship between current and voltage for a silicon pn junction diode is approximately given by I = Is (e40.V – 1). If Is = 0.25pA, calculate the diode current, I and static dc resistance, R, atV = 0.62V. Sketch the output waveform of the following circuit when the input is a sinewave of +5 V peak. Explain your sketch. Explain the terms "Zener breakdown" and "Avalanche breakdown". Sketch an appropriate circuit symbol for LED and Schottky diode and suggestone suitable application for each type.

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