c sp1 explain what the formula means in regular english go to the simu

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c. [SP1] Explain what the formula means in regular English.
Go to the Simulator.
11. [SP5] Describe what happens to the graph and why (from a logical standpoint) when you manipulate each of the
variables.
No
r
t
K
N
Changing N from
linear to log scale
12. [SP4] Describe what happens to the graph when K is smaller than No and explain why it occurs.
Kudu are an antelope species found in eastern and southern Africa. Male kudu have dramatically spiraled horns, which
makes them a target of trophy hunters. Assume that the carrying capacity in a park is 100 kudu. Given these values: k =
100, r = 0.26, No = 10...
[SP4] State when the kudus reach carrying capacity.
14. [SP6] Describe a scenario that could result in a lower r for the kudus and describe how the graph would change.
15. [SP6] Describe a scenario that could result in a higher K for the kudus and describe how the graph would change.
Human populations are not following a logistical growth curve...yet.
16. [SP1] Describe factors at play that have resulted in exponential growth for the human population.
16 Human population
15.6 bon
high
since 1800 in billions
17. [SP6] Predict what could happen to result in the population following
the growth curve for
14
12-
future
estimates
a. The high projection
10
7.8 billion in 2020
8
6 billion by 1999
low
7.3 billion
by 2100
41y 1974
b. The low projection
2-
Dale from UN World Poouson Aspects 2019
1800 1850 1900 1950 2000 2050 2100
Year
Page 3 of 4/nThe Gauce Experiment - Competitive Exclusion Principle (CEP)
You already saw this in the first review video I made you watch for this unit. This is a famous experiment done on single-
celled eukaryotes called paramecium that provides evidence for CEP. This was featured on the FRQ in 2019 as question
#2 (long one, give yourself 22 minutes). You need to show me you've completed this, but I will not do any verbals on it.
After you're done, go to GC and red pen correct with the Scoring Guideline.
A student studying two different aquatic. plant-eating, unicellular protist species (species A and B) designed
an experiment to investigate the ecological relationship between the two species (Table 1).
Group I.
TABLE 1. EXPERIMENTAL TREATMENT GROUPS
Group II.
Species A and B are each grown in separate containers.
Species A and B are grown together in the same container.
In treatment group I, the student placed 10 individuals of species A into a container with liquid growth medium
and 10 individuals of species B into a separate container with an equal amount of the same liquid growth
medium. In treatment group II, the student placed 5 individuals of each species into a single container with the
liquid growth medium. The student then maintained the containers under the same environmental conditions and
recorded the number of individuals in each population at various time points. The results are shown in Table 2.
TABLE 2. NUMBER OF INDIVIDUALS IN EACH PROTIST POPULATION
IN BOTH TREATMENT GROUPS
Time (h)
Group I. Grown Separately
Species A
Species B
Group II. Grown Together
Species A
Species B
0
10
10
5
5
10
100
50
45
20
20
400
200
100
50
30
1100
500
250
25
40
1400
650
525
20
50
1500
700
900
10
60
1500
700
1250
0
70
1500
700
1400
0
(a) The growth curves for species B in group I and for species A in group II (shaded columns) have been plotted
on the template. Use the template to complete an appropriately labeled line graph to illustrate the growth of
species A in treatment group I and species B in treatment group II (unshaded columns).
Species A. Group II b) As shown in the table, the student established treatment group II with
Species B. Group I
5 individuals of each species. Provide reasoning for the reduced initial
population sizes.
c) The student claims that species A and B compete for the same food
source. Provide TWO pieces of evidence from the data that support the
student's claim.
d) Predict TWO factors that will most likely limit the population growth
of species A in treatment group I.
e) Many protists contain an organelle called a contractile vacuole that
pumps water out of the cell. The student repeated the experiment using
a growth medium with a lower solute concentration. Predict how the
activity of the contractile vacuole will change under the new
experimental conditions. Justify your prediction.
Page 4 of 4/n5. [SP4] State what set of parameters will result in the following.
A nearly flat curve
A curve that grows
extremely quickly from
the start
A curve that grows more
quickly at the end
Waterbuck are a large antelope found in sub-Saharan Africa. Waterbuck populations in Gorongosa National Park in
Mozambique are recovering after a devastating civil war. Scientists are trying to understand and predict changes in the
size of waterbuck populations using models.
6. [SP5] The initial values for the waterbuck population are as follows: b = 0.67, d = 0.06, No = 140. Calculate the
waterbuck population growth rate r.
7. [SP6] Input the given values into the simulation. At t = 100, state what the population would be. Explain why this is
unrealistic and shows that exponential growth rarely ever occurs in real life.
8.
[SP5] To make the simulation more realistic, you could adjust r to reflect the fact that migration occurs. Let e =
emigration out of the population and i = immigration into the population. Calculater when i = 0.25, e = 0, b = 0.67, d=
0.06, and No = 140. Input the new value into simulation and state what the population of buffalo would be at t = 40.
Switch to the third tab, "Logistic Growth Model." In real life, there are limiting factors that result in a carrying capacity, a
finite limit to the size of a population, that prevent exponential growth from happening. A more accurate representation
of population growth, then, is reflected in logistical growth graphs.
=
9. dN/dt rN (1 - N/K)
(On the AP biology formula sheet you will be given during the test, this formula appears as the "multiplied"
version [idk how to say it]):
N = N(K - N)
dN
dt
K
[SP1]] Explain what each variable in the formula represents.
b. [SP1] Explain what the formula means in regular English.
10. Integration happens again, giving you:
N(t) =
ΚΝΕ
No+(K-No)e rt
a. [SP1] Explain what each variable in the formula represents.
b. [SP6] Compare this formula to the integrated formula from the exponential growth model and explain what
the major differences that will result in different curves when plotting the two formulas will be.
Page 2 of 4/nVerbal
Population Dynamics
name:
On the HHMI simulation on GC, start at the first tab, "Population Dynamics."
1. [SP1] Summarize the applications of population dynamics.
Date:
P
Go to the second tab, "Exponential Growth Model."
2.
dN/dt = rN
dN=
dt =
a. [SP1] Explain what each variable in the formula represents. If you haven't done calculus yet, whenever you
see a "d" in front of the variable, it means "change in." So "dN" = change in N (and you need to define N for
this question)
N =
b. [SP5] Explain how you would calculate r for a given population.
[SP1] Explain what the formula means in regular English.
More calculus to get rid of the "d" stuff in the previous formula and actually be able to solve for population size
instead of just growth rate, you need to integrate. Not important what that is, but you end up with the formula:
N(t) = Noe't
[SP1] Explain what each variable in the formula represents.
a.
N(t) =
No =
e =
= 1
b. [SP1] Explain what the formula means in regular English.
Go to the Simulator on this tab.
4. [SP5] Describe what happens to the graph and why (from a logical standpoint) when you manipulate each of the
variables.
No
r
t
Changing N from
linear to log scale
Page 3 of 3
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