Question

Strength of Material

for Part A, determine who is liable for the flood and why. Be sure to show all your reasoning and describe how and why the specification may determine which party is liable. See Lectures 8-12 or Chapters 31 and 32 in the book.

GBS sued to recover the balance due under a contract with the federal government to build a dry dock at the Brooklyn Navy Yard according to plans and specifications the government prepared. The work required GBS to relocate a sewer main. The specification of work was created by the federal government and specifically prescribed the dimensions, material and location of the section to be substituted. In addition, the federal government provided all drawings to GBS. GBS completed there location by exactly following the specification that was specified by the federal government.About a year a later, a heavy rain and high tide caused the sewer relocated by GBS to overflow before the dry dock was completed, causing the excavation of the dry dock to be flooded. Ani Investigation revealed that an existing internal dam had diverted the water into a portion of the sewer that overflowed into the dry dock. The internal dam was an existing feature but was not shown on the plan and specifications the government gave to GBS. GBS and the federal government each claimed the other was responsible for the flood. Eventually,the government canceled GBS's contract and completed the work with a replacement contractor.At the time the contract was canceled, GBS was not fully paid.  Verified  ### Question 44941  Strength of Material

For the support of Prob. 1.47, knowing that the diameter of the pins d = 16 mm and that the magnitude of the load is P 20 kN,determine (a) the factor of safety for the pin, (b) the required values of b and e if the factor of safety for the wooden member is the same-as that found in part a for the pin.

### Question 43624  Strength of Material

17. Iron has a BCC crystal structure and an atomic radius of 0.1241 nm. Determine the interplanar spacing corresponding to (111) and (211) set of planes. Please look at the previous question to understand what (111) and (211) means.[5 points]

### Question 43623  Strength of Material

16. Determine the expected diffraction angle for the first-order reflection (i.e., n=1) from the (310)set of planes for BCC chromium when monochromatic radiation of wavelength 0.0711 nm is-used. (311) means h=3, k=1, and l=1. Please look at the determination of dnki in the slide set corresponding to Lecture 2. Also note that the diffraction angle means 20. You will determine"0" from the equation, and will have to multiply it by 2.[5 points]

### Question 43621  Strength of Material

14. Explain the differences between ionic and covalent bonding.

### Question 43620  Strength of Material

13. Molybdenum has a BCC crystal structure, an atomic radius of 0.1363 nm, and an atomic weight of 95.94 g/mol. Compute its theoretical density.[3 points]

### Question 43619  Strength of Material

12. Calculate the radius of a Palladium atom if it has a FCC crystal structure, a density of 12.0g/cm3 and an atomic weight of 106.4 g/mol.[3 points]

### Question 43617  Strength of Material

10. Derive the value for the atomic packing factor of a FCC structure.

### Question 43616  Strength of Material

9. In Question 1, it was noted that the net bonding energy En between two isolated positive and negative ions is a function of interionic distance r as follows:
E_{N}=-\frac{A}{r}+\frac{B}{r^{n}}
where A, B, and n are constants for the particular ion pair. This equation is also valid for the bonding energy between adjacent ions in solid materials. The modulus of elasticity "E" is proportional to the slope of the interionic force-separation curve at the equilibrium interionic separation that is is E =kx(df/dr)
Derive an expression for the dependence of the modulus of elasticity on these A, B, and n parameters (for the two-ion system) using the following procedure:
\text { a. Establish a relationship for the force } \mathrm{F} \text { as a function of } \mathrm{r} \text {, realizing that } F=\frac{d E_{N}}{d \mathbf{r}}
b. Now take the derivative dF/dr.
c. Substitute the value of ro obtained in Question 1 in the above expression and determine the expression for the modulus of elasticity “E". [Assume k = 2]

### Question 43615  Strength of Material

8. The net potential energy between two adjacent ions, En, may be represented as:
E_{N}=-\frac{A}{r}+\frac{B}{r^{n}}
Calculate the bonding energy Eo in terms of the parameters A, B, and n using the following procedure:
a. Differentiate En with respect to r, and then set the resulting expression equal to zero, since the curve of EN versus r is a minimum at Eo.
b. Solve for r in terms of A, B, and n, which yields ro, the equilibrium interionic spacing.
c. Determine the expression for Eo by substitution of ro into the above equation.

### Question 43614  Strength of Material

7. Show that volumetric strain is the sum of strains in three orthogonal directions.

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