Intelligence testing in the United States has historically been based on the assumption that intelligence is innate. This allows proponents of its use to discount the importance of education as a

mediating factor. However, as it is recognized that education is the key to social mobility, the quality of education is a critical factor in deciding one's ability to succeed in life. In part, the quality of public schools is tied to the revenue base of real estate taxes levied against the residential and business buildings within a supporting school district. While there have been innumerable curricular reforms introduced over the years to improve the quality of public education, there have been far fewer attempts to overhaul the basic funding of public schools. (Vermont is an exception.) This has meant that disadvantaged communities have fewer opportunities to make up the educational deficits of their students. Why do you think the underlying funding of public schools has seldom been redressed? And secondly, what reforms might you suggest to equip public schools to address the educational deficit of disadvantaged communities?