It is important for the pH of blood to be maintained in the range of 7.35 to 7.45. The bicarbonate ion/carbonic acid buffer system is the most important of three buffer systems in the blood that help maintain this pH range. This system is represented by the following equations: \mathrm{H}_{2} \mathrm{O}+\mathrm{CO}_{2}(\mathrm{~g}) \longleftrightarrow \mathrm{H}_{2} \mathrm{CO}_{3}(\mathrm{aq}) \quad \mathrm{H}^{+}(\mathrm{aq})+\mathrm{HCO}_{3}^{-1}(\mathrm{aq}) Abnormal breathing patterns can lead to acid-base imbalances in the blood. Too rapid and too deep breathing, a condition called hyperventilation, leads to alkalosis (abnormally high pH). Conversely, hypoventilation, the result of too shallow breathing can cause respiratory acidosis (abnormally low pH). Remember we breathe out CO2 (g)! a. Using Le Chatelier's principle, explain how breathing patterns lead to respiratory acidosis. b. Often when someone hyperventilates they are told to breathe into a paper bag, explain why? [2]

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