many chemical reactions are known in which two substances react in pre
Many chemical reactions are known in which two substances react in precise mole ratios to form a
known product in virtually 100% yield with no side-reactions or unexpected by-products. Such
reactions may be studied conveniently by titration, the carefully-measured addition of a solution of
one reactant to a known amount of the second reactant until that point at which the precisely correct
mole ratio of the two reactants is reached. This point, called the end-point, may be determined with
the use of an indicator.
In this experiment we will study three acid-base reactions which fall into the category described
above. In the first part, weighed samples of oxalic acid will be titrated with a solution of NaOH of
unknown concentration. The end-point will be determined with an indicator which remains
colorless so long as excess acid is present, but which turns pink when the first drop of excess NaOH
is added. The molarity of NaOH can then be calculated.
In the second part, a measured volume of vinegar (a solution of acetic acid) will be titrated with the
same NaOH solution. Since the molarity of the NaOH solution is now known, the molarity of
acetic acid in the vinegar can be calculated. Given the density of vinegar, the percent composition
can also be determined.
In the third part, weighed samples of an unknown monoprotic acid will be titrated with the standard
NaOH solution. From the data gathered, the molar mass of the unknown acid will be determined.
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