Microprocessor and Microcontroller

Questions & Answers

1. Write down the general formula of the following: The required minimum memory address size. The maximum addressable memory size

2. Find the maximum addressable memory size of the following address size in MB and GB: o 20-bits o 24-bits o 32-bits o 36-bits

3. Find the minimum address size of the following Memory size: o 16 GB o 256 MB o 256 KB o 25 TB

a. List all storage units and what kind of data they can store (data,instructions, addresses)? b. What is the address range (in hex) for the instruction PROM? How many cycles does an instruction consume? d. What is the purpose of NOP instruction? e. List all instructions that directly manipulate the call/return stack. f. How many clock cycles does instruction decode take? g. What is the purpose of the interrupt input? How can we disable interrupts? h. What flags does the test instruction affect? Does it affect the register contents? i. When we execute a call instruction, does the PicoBlaze save the register file contents? j. What is the difference between ADD and ADDCY instructions? Explain why we need two variants of ADD instruction?

2) What is the proper assembly code steps? Please provide several examples.

[1 pt] With which assembly languages, e.g.,ARM, Intel x86, RISC-V, MIPS, etc., are you familiar? Indicate which language you are most comfortable with and use this language to complete the remainder of this assignment.

1) What is assembly language, mnemonics, opcode and operands? Please provide severalexamples.

[2 pts] Assume that an 8-bit computer performs binary addition on these signed(using two's complement), 8-bit numbers:00001100 + 01110110. What sum does it calculate (in binary)? Is this sum correct?Please explain your answer.

[1 pt] What is the decimal value of this 8-bitnumber, assuming that it is a signed number represented in two's complement? The 8-bitnumber is 11101010.

5. [1 pt] Explain the difference between little ENDIAN and big endian notation. Which notation does your assembly language use with memory?

3) What is the #1 rule if you have questions about a particular microprocessor you are working on?Please provide several examples.

[2 pts] Write a short segment of assembly code that writes the value 42 to memory location 0x20000000. Note, you probably cannot do this with only one instruction,instead this will probably require two to three lines of code.

[2 pts] Explain the difference between a loadinstruction and a store instruction. Provide oneexample assembly instruction for a load andone for a store.

4) What are Registers? Please provide several examples.

a. What does FPGA stand for? b. Draw the basic architecture of a simple FPGA. Identify each type of resource and briefly explain its purpose. c. Mention three advantages and three disadvantages of using FPGAs. d. List the steps to "compile" a user design onto an FPGA. Briefly, explain what happens in each step. e. Research any other FPGA architecture (other than Spartan 3 or Virtex IIfamilies) and provide the device specific of the FPGA family.***

Q1) What is the first microprocessor and when was it released? Q2) What are its specifications? Q3) What was it used for? Q4) Give example of a more recent and more powerful microprocessor and its specifications. Q5) Give an application of the processor (Do not search online. Think one yourself). Also list other components you might need for the applications (e.g., sensors, motors, etc.,)

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