  ### Question 40120  Verified

Thermofluid

a) Given that for a flew process the steady flow equation is:

q-w=\left(u_{2}-u_{1}\right)+\left(p_{2} v_{2}-P_{1} v_{1}\right)+\left(\frac{C^{2}}{2}-\frac{C_{1}^{2}}{2}\right)+p\left(x_{2}-z_{1}\right)

b) Explain how the following jet engine works. Refer to each section of the engine and explain the purpose of each section.

e) Draw a Temperature (T) versus Entropy (s) diagram for a typical gas turbine. The diagram should show the processes for an actual gas turbine and should show the effect of real world losses where the compressor and turbine have an isentropic efficiency and pressure losses in the combustion chamber in an actual gas turbine.Explain each of the processes on the T-s diagram.

### Question 40119  Verified

Thermofluid

in the figure below a piston is free to move and will not exit the cylinder. Initially the cylinder contains 2kg of air at 1.Sbar and 25°C

Heat is transferred to the air and the piston rises until it reaches the blocks, at which point the volume is twice the initial volume. More heat is added until the pressure inside the cylinder also doubles. Determine

i.the work dene and

ii.the amount of heat transfer for this process.

Also show the process on a P-v diagram.

b) Air operating in a closed cycle consists of the following processes.

Process 2-3: Coristant volume heat addition.

Process 3-4: Constant pressure heat addition.

Process 5-1: Constant volume heat rejection.

Draw this cycle on a pressure volume diagram and annotate your diagram with as much information as possible.

### Question 40118  Verified

Thermofluid

a) A fan is installed in a residential building to provide proper ventilation. This fan is connected to a duct with I1.6 em diameter and provides the average air velocity of 5mis. By regulation, the minimum fresh air requirement is specified to be 0.35 air changes per hour (ACH) which means 35% of the entire air contained in a room should be replaced by fresh outdoor air every hour. Determine:

1. The flow capacity of the fan in litres/min

What the height of the residential building should be.

b) A3 cm orifice plate is placed within a 4 em pipe in which methanel at 20 "C (SG =0.7884 and dynamic viscosity (p) 0.5857 eP) is flowing through. If the flow rate passing through the pipe is 3.1 litres per seconds, determine the pressure difference that must be measured around the orifice plate. The discharge coefficient of the orifice can-be calculated by:

C_{d d}=0.5959+0.0312 \beta^{2.1}-0.184 \beta^{k}+\frac{91.71 \beta^{23}}{\mathrm{Re}^{0.25}}

Where, B is the ratio of orifiee diameter to pipe diameter and Re is the Reynolds number.

c) A nozzle is fastened to the end of a U-tube with dimensions as shown in Figure Q2c.The nozzle exhausts into atmospheric pressure at 100 kPa; neglect friction and compute the force exerted on the U-tube by the water. if the force required to hold the nozzle is 850 N, determine the inlet pressure.

d) The drag coefficient in aircraft industry affected by some parameters which are the speed of plane (v). the plane length (L), the air density (pk. the air dynamite viscosity(p), and speed of sound (a). By using dimensional analysis, identify two non-dimension numbers in which the drag coefficient is a function of them and explain how these two will effect on drag coefficient.

### Question 40117  Verified

Thermofluid

(a) A water tank is completely filled with liquid water at 60rc. The tank material is such that it can withstand tension caused by a volume expansion of 4%. Determine the maximum temperature rise allowed without jeopardizing safety. Take water coefficient expansion (B) as 5.22 x 10*1K at this temperature.

(b) A weight, as shown in figure Qib-(a) has to move at constant velocity of 2 m's on an inelined surface with a coefficient of friction of 0.27. The width of the block is 20 cm.

Determine the force (FI) that needs to be applied in the horizontal direction.

By applying a thick oil film as shown in figure Qlb-b), the force required to push the block reduced by 45%. If dynamic viscosity of the oil is 12 cP,determine the oil layer thickness.

(c) A gate with 2 m width is kacated under the water as shown in Figure Qlc. IF the force(F) required to held the gate is about 20 kN, determine the distance (dj of this force to

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