#### Very Large Scale Integrated Circuit

Problem 1. NMOS large-signal model (Gray: 1.15) For a NMOS transistor (A = 0.1V-¹): (a) Sketch the ID vs VDs characteristics for VDs from 0V to 3V and VGs = 0.5V and 1.5V. Assume VSB OV. (b) Sketch the ID vs VGs characteristics for VDS 2V and VGS from 0V to 3V. Assume VSBOV and 1V.

Problem 1. NMOS large-signal model (Gray: 1.15) For a NMOS transistor (A = 0.1V-¹): (a) Sketch the ID vs VDs characteristics for VDs from 0V to 3V and VGs = 0.5V and 1.5V. = OV. Assume VSB (b) Sketch the ID vs VGs characteristics for VDS 2V and VGS from 0V to 3V. Assume VSBOV and 1V.

Problem 1. Output resistance and small signal gain: 30 points (Razavi) Assume Ip is 1 mA, y = 0, L = 0.5μm and ()₁ = ()₂ = (H)3 = 100, calculate small-signal gain and output resistance for the circuits in Fig. 1 thru 3.

Problem 2. Maximum output swing and bias: 20 points In Fig. 2 and 3, assuming same device size as in Problem 1 and VDD = 3V, calculate (a) Nominal bias voltages (V61, V62) assuming ID = 1mA. (b) Maximum and minimum values of Vout such that all devices are in saturation

a)Explain in no more than 300 words the difference between the large and the small signal models for a Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT). Explain why the operating point in l-V characteristics of BJT plays a central role in determination of a signal model. Can this determination be done without the operating point? b)Draw a schematic of the p-n-p Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT) fabricated on a silicon substrate as a part of an integrated circuit. Explain your choice of the particularly doped silicon substrate and the order of fabrication steps in an eventual fabrication flow for the p-n-p BJT. Draw a schematic of so-called Cascode Amplifier and explain how this configuration is related to the three circuit configurations (namely a common-base, a common-emitter,and a common-collector) for a Bipolar Junction Transistor (BJT) to act as an amplifier.Write a comparison of the Cascode Amplifier configuration with respect to the three common configurations with respect to: the voltage gain, the current gain, and the power gain.(6 marks7 d)Describe three applications of the Bipolar-CMOS-DMOS (BCD) power transistor of your choice in a custom chip. Write an essay of no longer than 300 words justifying why the BCD power transistor is an optimal solution for each of the three chip applications selected.

a) Compare between Programmable Logic Devices (PLD) (Programmable Logic Array(PLA)/ Programmable Array Logic (PAL)), Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), and Application-Specific Integrated Circuits (ASIC). Your comparison should include, but not be limited to: IC Structure Programmability Time to Market Price Complexity The comparison essay should not be longer than 300-words, and table/tables,equations, bullet points and schematics can be used.(6 marksl b)Derive the Boolean expression and define the truth table for the output 'Q' with respect to inputs A, B and C for the logic circuit shown in Figure Q3. Use the Boolean Algebra to optimize the design in Figure Q3, redraw the new logic circuit, and verify the equivalency. Draw a schematic diagram for the function 'Z': Z=\overline{((A . B)+C) . D}

a)Describe in an essay no longer than 400 words your own understanding of a validity of Moore's Law for the digital CMOS transistor scaling. Address the following issues:the dimensions of transistors, the density of transistors, the operational frequency of transistors, the design of digital circuits made of the transistors, the number of cores in a processor, and the cost of the transistors related to the cost of fabrication and to the cost of a technology development. b)Find at least four technology innovations which had to be introduced into the technology nodes to boost a performance of CMOS transistors in order to meet requirements for digital circuits and thus continue the scaling. Write a maximum of 300words essay to explain the technical reasons for your selected technology innovation.Justify that your technology chosen change is an innovation.18 marksl c)MOSFET which has a conduction parameter of 50 mAN? and a threshold voltage of0.5 V. If the supply voltage is +15 Vand the load resistor is 365 Q, calculate the values of the resistors required to bias the MOSFET amplifier at 1/3 (VDD).A common source MOSFET amplifier is to be constructed using an n-channel d)How is a gain (A) in a MOSFET based amplifier related to the input resistance (RIN)and the output resistance (RouT) ?1 morl1