#### Petroleum Refinery Operations

Question 1. 1. Derive the design equations for gas capacity and oil capacity constraints for a horizontal separator for the following two cases: i. The gas occupies 75% of the separator effective volume. ii. The gas occupics 25% of the separator effective volume.

Design a horizontal separatoe to handle the field production. If the field is located offshore, design the appropriate separator to handle the field production.

1. Classify petroleum refining processes and operations into five basic types.

2. Give a general description of what happens in the first distillation column (atmospheric fractional distillation).

Oil has the capability to disperse as a very thin layer on a water surface. The moleculardiameter of a particular oil is known to be 3 x 10-7 cm. A quantity of this oil, when placedcarefully on a water surface, eventually spreads to an area of 16 x 104 m2 in amonomolecular layer. a) Calculate the volume of the oil. (7 marks) b.What would be the area of a monomolecular layer produced from a teaspoonful (5 ml)of this oil? (3 marks) The average CO2 emissions from new passenger cars registered in the European Union(EU), Iceland, Norway and the United Kingdom (UK) in 2019 was 122.4 g of CO2 per kilometre (European Environment Agency, 2020). In the year 2000, the figure was 172.1g per kilometre. .If, on average, the annual mileage of a passenger car in the EU is 12,000miles a year, c)calculate its CO2 emission for 2019. (3 marks) d)Then calculate the percentage reduction compared to a passenger car used in the year 2000.

4. Say we have a 6000 ft well 13 inches in diameter and we lower 10.75 inch casing into the well at 3 fps. The fluid is1215cp mud. What will the pressure at the bottom of ppg the well be when all 6000 feet of casing are in the well.Assume the casing is floated in...(be sure to include the static head as well as surge)= closed at the bottom.

2. We need to calculate the clay required to make up mud.Assume a mud volume of 200 BBL. A high yield clay (33BBL/ton) will be used. a. How many 100 lbm. "sacks" of clay are required? b. How much water is needed? What is the mud density before weighting? d.How 200 lbm. "sacks" of barite are required to many raise the density by 0.25 ppg? Calculate the pressure at the bottom of the well.C. e.Calculate the pressure at the bottom of the well.

5. A well is being drilled at 7,500 ft. A sudden increase in pit volume is observed. In the 3 minutes it takes to notice the increase and close the BOP's, 18 barrels of mud are "gained". The original mud density was 10.4Ibm/gal and circulation was 370 gpm. After stabilization, a drill pipe pressure of 200 psig and a casing pressure of 300 psig were observed. This is a11" hole with 19.5#, 5" OD drill pipe and 9x4" drill collars (300ft). Calculate the kick density.

1. We are using an 12 lb/gal mud with Fann VG readings of22 at 300 rpm and 34 at 600 rpm. We have 6000 ft of 4.26inch inside diameter 5 inch outside diameter drill pipe. The pump outlet pressure is rated to a maximum of 3000 psia and the well is 6000 ft deep. if the mud was designed for "balance" when not circulating, what is the reservoir pressure?a. b. What are K and n?n c. What are Hpand t, ?Hp d. The bit has 3 nozzles 15/32 in diameter, i. What is the pressure drop across the bit if we circulate at 500 gpm? ii. What would the frictional pressure drop through drill pipe be? iii. What would the frictional pressure drop through the annulus be? iv. So what would the pump pressure be, and does this pose a problem?

3. We have cuttings composed of.11 cm diameter spheres of quartz (sp gr = 2.6) in the mud described in problem 1. a. What is the slip velocity? b. If we want a transport ratio of 0.53, what is the circulation rate in gpm if the hole is 13 7/8 inches in diameter?