(a) The DC chopper in Fig. Q5(a) has a resistive load, R=30 £2, and input voltage V₁=230 V.The on-state voltage drop of the switch is 1.5V and the switching frequency is 15kHz. Ifthe converter duty cycle is 65%, calculate: (i)The mean load voltage. (ii)The RMS load voltage. (iii) The ripple factor of the output voltage (iv) The converter efficiency

(b) In power electronic equipment, most of the waveforms are non-sinusoidal. Discuss: (i) The significance of the presence of voltage/current harmonics caused by AC/DC converters. (ii) How the impact of those harmonics can be mitigated in power electronic circuits. (c) With the aid of a well labelled diagram, explain the application of power electronics in solar photovoltaic energy systems.[4]

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