Question

C/C++

Data hazards are caused by data dependencies in the code.Whether a dependency causes a hazard depends on the machine implementation (i.e., number of pipeline stages). List all of the data dependencies in the code above. Record the register, source instruction, and destination instruction; for example, there is a data dependency for register RI from the LD to the DADDI.

Show the timing of this instruction sequence for the 5-stage RISC pipeline without any forwarding or bypassing hardware but assuming that a register read and a write in the same clock cycle "forwards" through the register file, as shown in Figure C.6. Use a pipeline timing chart like that in Figure C.5. Assume that the branch is handled by flushing the pipeline. If all memory references take 1 cycle, how many cycles does this loop take to execute?

Show the timing of this instruction sequence for the 5-stage RISC pipeline with full forwarding and bypassing hardware. Use a pipeline timing chart like that shown in Figure C.5. Assume that the branch is handled by predicting it as not taken. If all memory references take 1 cycle, how many cycles does this loon take to execute?

Show the timing of this instruction sequence for the 5-stage RISC pipeline with full forwarding and bypassing hardware. Use a pipeline timing chart like that shown in Figure C.5. Assume that the branch is handled by predicting it as taken. If all memory references take 1 cycle, how many cycles does this loop take to execute?

High-performance processors have very deep pipelines-more than 15 stages. Imagine that you have a 10-stage pipeline in which every stage of the 5-stage pipeline has been split in two. The only catch is that, for data forwarding, data are forwarded from the end of a pair of stages to the beginning of the two stages where they are needed. For example, data are forwarded from the output of the second execute stage to the input of the first execute stage, still causing a l-cycle delay. Show the timing of this instruction sequence for the 10-stage RISC pipeline with full forwarding and bypassing hardware. Use a pipeline timing chart like that shown in Figure C.5. Assume

Assume that in the 5-stage pipeline the longest stage requires 0.8ns, and the pipeline register delay is 0.1 ns. What is the clock cycle time of the 5-stage pipeline? If the 10-stage pipeline splits all stages in half, what is the cycle time of the 10-stage machine?

Using your answers from parts (d) and (e), determine the cycles per instruction (CPI) for the loop on a 5-stage pipeline and a 10-stage pipe-line. Make sure you count only from when the first instruction reaches the write-back stage to the end. Do not count the start-up of the first instruction.Using the clock cycle time calculated in part (f), calculate the average instruction execute time for each machine.


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