#### Chemical Process Calculations

P4.36 100 gmol/min of a solution of 70 mol % ethanol/30 mol % water is fed to a reactor operating at steady state, along with 80 gmol/min of air (79 mol % N₂, 21 mol % O₂). Ethanol (C₂H5OH) reacts with oxygen to make acetaldehyde (CH,CHO). Acetaldehyde is further oxidized to acetic acid (CH₂COOH). Write the two stoichiometrically balanced chemical equations. What is the byproduct of the reactions? What is the limiting reactant? If there is 100% conversion of the limiting reactant and the production rate of acetaldehyde is 25 gmol/min, calculate the fractional conversion of the excess reactant, the yield of acetaldehyde from ethanol, and the composition and flow rate of the reactor effluent stream.

P4.41 Hydrogen reacts with iron oxide (Fe₂O3) to produce metallic iron (Fe), with water vapor as a byproduct. 100% conversion of Fe₂O3 is achieved, and the metallic iron is easily separated from the hydrogen-water vapor mixture. The water is condensed, and the hydrogen is recycled. The hydrogen source is contaminated with 1 mol % CO. The recycle:fresh feed ratio is 4:1, and the maximum allowable CO in the gas fed to the reactor is 2.5 mol %. Draw a flow diagram, and complete a DOF analysis. Then calculate the single-pass and overall conversion of H₂ as well as all process flows, for a production rate of 1 ton/day metallic iron. (Hint: Consider changing basis to the gas feed.)

Problem 3-MTBE Production Consider the production of methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE), which is widely used as an octane and emissions improver in gasoline. CH3OH + CH2=C(CH3)2 CH3OC(CH3)3 This reaction is conducted over a solid acid catalyst in a flow reactor operating at 2.5 atm total pressure. The reaction readily reaches equilibrium at 80°C, and the equilibrium constant at this temperature is K, = 7.5 atm. The reactor feed flows at 120 mole/min, and has a composition 40% methanol, 20% isobutene, and remainder inert nitrogen. a) Prepare a mole table showing the outlet mole fraction of all species present in terms of the initial composition and the (unknown) reaction extent. b) Calculate the equilibrium conversion and the outlet composition. c) What changes can you suggest that would increase the conversion of the limiting reactant?

Problem 4-1-Butanol reactor variations The dehydration of 1-butanol to isobutene is run as an equilibrium-limited reaction with Keq = 2.4 atm at T = 323 K. The gas-phase reactor is operated at 1atm total pressure, and the feed is to contain 10 mole/min 1-butanol. (CH3)3COH -- (CH3)2C=CH2 + H₂O a) Calculate the equilibrium conversion expected when the feed is pure 1-butanol vapor. Also report the outlet composition and total molar flow rate. b) Calculate the equilibrium conversion expected if this reactor is operated at a total pressure of 0.2 atm. Also report the outlet composition and total molar flow rate. c) It is common to add nitrogen or another inert gas to the feed stream to increase the butanol conversion. Calculate the fractional conversion of butanol expected when the feed is 20 mole% 1-butanol and 80 mole% nitrogen, at the same total pressure and butanol flow rate as before. Also report the outlet composition and total molar flow rate. d) Comment briefly on the difference between the conversions expected for these conditions. Give advantages and disadvantages of each plan.

For the furnace's design, consider using fuel oil as the source of en- ergy with the following ultimate analysis (%w/w basis) to be burnt with 15% excess air. • Assume complete combustion, determine the followings: 1. The mass of air required to burn 1 kg fuel oil. 2. The mass of flue gas produced from the combustion of 1 kg fuel oil. 3. The flue gas composition (%v/v). 4. The volume of flue gas produced (a t 300°C and 1 atm) from 1 kg fuel oil

For your process unit, have the following slides 1. Title slide introducing the unit and group members 2. Define the process unit (what is it used for) and show how the unit is drawn on a PFD 3. Show an actual photo of what the process unit looks like in real life! 4. Find an everyday example (or examples) of your unit. 5. Explain how the process unit works (you may want to show a schematic here)

8. [4 points]. Determine whether the following equation, y=x² +1 represents a one-to-one function by answering the questions below. If the answer is False provide a justification. a) True or False: This equation represents as a function of x ? b) True or False: This equation represents x as a function of ? =) True or False: This equation represent a one-to-one function ?

2. Fill in the blanks. Batch ___________ Semi Batch Transient, ______ Steady State, Open _____, ______ Coffee is made using a variety of methods, but all of them involve using hot water to extract the flavor compounds out of coffee beans. A simplified process for making coffee is given below. 1) Grind roasted coffee beans using a coffee grinder. 2) Heat water. 3) Pour hot water over ground coffee in a filter. 4) Collect the water in a pot. 5) Dispose of spent coffee grounds. 1. Using the process description above, create a basic block flow diagram of the CO2 process for decaffeination showing all the steps. 2. Now create a new process flow diagram by substitute equipment symbols (see below) for the blocks. 3. Label the streams. 4. Create a stream table.

An equimolar mixture of the four components (ethane, n-Butane,n-Octane, n-Decane) is flashed at 1000 kPa and 100°C. Calculate the ratio of molar flow rates of vapour product to feed i.e. (V/F).

A saturated vapour feed of 2250 kmol/h consists of 50 mol% methane, 30 mol%propane and 20 mol% n-butane. A distillate recovery of 99 mol% propane and bottoms recovery of 97.5 mol% n-butane is desired. \text { The average relative volatility is } \alpha_{\text {methane-propane }}=9.92 x_{\text {propane-propane }}=\text { and } \alpha_{\text {butane-propane }}=0.49 Constant molar overflow (CMO) is valid. Reflux is returned as a saturated liquid. Thecolumn has a partial reboiler and a total condenser. \text { Calculate the value of } \phi You must state the answer in 4 decimal places.