summary writing

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Question 44409


Summary Writing

Pacemakers have existed in a very rudimentary form since the 19th century, when it was discovered that electrical impulses could be used to provoke a heartbeat. However, the devices that followed were large and bulky and had to be plugged into a mains current,putting the patient at risk of electrocution. It wasn't until 1960 that battery-powered implantable pacemakers came into use, having been invented four years previously.Electrical engineer Wilson Great batch was working on a heart-rhythm recorder when he added the wrong size of resistor to the circuitry. Rather than recording, he found that the device produced electrical pulses instead. He quickly realized that it could be used to regulate the electrical activity of the heart and guarantee a steady rhythm. Over the next two years, he succeeded in miniaturising the device and making it safe from bodily fluids.The first patient, a 77-year-old man, went on to live for a further 18 months.

a) Since when have pacemakers existed?

b) What were the problems with the early machines?

c) What can electrical impulses do to the heart?

d) When working on a heart-rhythm recorder what did Wilson Great batch:

i) do by mistake?

ii) and what happened?

e) When did the battery-powered implantable pacemakers come into use?

What does a pacemaker consist of?

If you have a pacemaker, what will happen if your heartbeat is abnormal?

Describe the difference between a 'Double Lead' and a 'Single Lead' pacemaker.

How old was the first patient who received a pacemaker when he died? Assuming he received it on his 77th Birthday.(1 mark)

Question 44408


Summary Writing

a) Approximately how long ago were the planets formed?

b) Earth and Venus are very similar in some ways. State two things they have incommon still and one that is different.(3 marl

What caused the changes in Venus?

d) What happened to the water on the surface of Venus?

e) What caused the thickening of the atmosphere on Venus that lead to its increase in temperature?

f) Venus is the hottest planet in the Solar System. What is the surface temperature?

What does the surface of Venus look like?

h) What is the wind speed on the 'Earth's Evil Twin'?

i) What 'falls as rain' on Venus?

j) Name the Russian probe that has sent back images of the Planet's surface.

Question 44407


Summary Writing

a) What happens when exploding stars (pyrotechnic pellets) are arranged on a card in a certain shape inside a shell?(1 mark)

b) What does the initial fuse do?

c) What are wirebridge fuses used for?

d) What is gunpowder also known as?

e) Name the charge that sends the shell into the air without detonating the main compartment.(1 mark)

f) What determines the colour and shape of the explosion?

g) There are three main chemical components of a sparkler. What are they?

h) How is the sparkler then made?

i) Give two reasons why a powdered metal is essential.

j) Which metals produce a yellow sparkle?

k) What salt can be added to give a green sparkle?

Question 43646


Summary Writing

Use the truth table method to evaluate the following arguments. For each, say whether the argument is valid or invalid. If the argument is valid, find and construct the tautology based on the valid argument form. If the argument is invalid, give truth-value assignments (i.e. 'p is true/false') for each variable that could be used to construct a counterexample. If there are multiple possibilities,just give one. (15 points each)

1. pvq

\text { 2. } p \Longrightarrow r

\text { 3. } q \Longrightarrow r

\therefore 4 . r

\text { 1. }(p \wedge q) \Longrightarrow r

\text { 2. } p \vee q

\therefore 3 . r

Question 43644


Summary Writing

Translate each of the following sentences into logical notation. Provide and clearly state your own translation key for each. (3 pts each)

1. “Ashley enjoys cooking, but not doing the dishes or going to the grocery."

2. "Bryan will not go to the movies if he gets called into work."

3. "Dustin is quite lazy, while Eileen and Faried are hard workers."

4. "If Gail eats peanuts her throat swells up and she breaks out in hives."

5. "Harry is either a medical doctor or has his doctorate in biochemistry, butnot both."

6. "Ingrid won't earn a year-end bonus unless her productivity mproves.

7. "Jack is neither in the office nor working from home."book "

8 "Kendrick feels relaxed only if he is watching a movie or reading a book."

"It is not true that Lisa isn't tired."

10. "Maggy is going to dinner, but if Nelson is there she won't stay long.

Question 43643


Summary Writing

For each of the following wffs, identify the main logical connective. If more than one of the same connective is present, specify which you mean. (2 pts each)

\text { 16. } \neg A \wedge \neg B

\text { 17. } A \vee(B \vee C)

\text { 18. }(A \wedge(B \vee C)) \vee D

\text { 19. } \neg(\neg A \Longrightarrow(B \wedge C))

\text { 20. } \neg \neg A

\text { 21. }((A \Longrightarrow B) \wedge(B \Longrightarrow C)) \Longrightarrow(A \Longrightarrow C)

\text { 22. }(A \wedge B) \wedge \neg(B \wedge C)

\text { 23. } A \vee((B \Longrightarrow C) \wedge \neg(D \vee E))

Question 43642


Summary Writing

Each of the following are not well-formed formulas (wffs) because they have the wrong syntax. Add parentheses to each formula to make it a wff corresponding with the sentence next to it. (2 pts each)

\text { 11. } A \Longrightarrow B \vee C \text {; "If } A \text { then } B \text {, or } C \text {." }

\text { 12. } A \wedge \neg B \vee C \wedge D ; " A \text { and not } B \text {, or } C \text { and } D \text {." }

\text { 13. } \neg A \vee B \Longrightarrow C \text {; "Not } A \text { or if } B \text { then } C . "

\text { 14. } A \Longrightarrow B \vee C \vee D \text {; "If } A \text { then } B \text { or } C \text {, or } D . "

\text { 15. } \neg A \wedge B \vee \neg C \text {; "Not } A \text { and } B \text {, or not } C . "

Question 43641


Summary Writing

Translate each of the following sentences into logical notation using the trans-lation key provided for each. (2 pts each)

"It hasn't rained since last week."1.22

R = "It has rained since last week"

"Peter is going to the dinner if Tammy is going"the narty

"Peter is going to the party" ; T = "Tammy is going to the party

"It's either too early for the store to be open, or they are closed for the holiday."

.O = "It is too early for the store to be open" ; H = "The store is closed for the holiday.

"Katherine is loyal, but slow to trust others."trust others"

L = “Katherine is loyal" ;S = "Katherine is slow to trust others

"Many are predicting that the Patriots will win the Superbowl, despite the fact that it is very early in the NFL season."

"It isn't true that all of the students are happy with their grades."

.H = "All of the students are happy with their grades"

"The traffic is either caused by an accident or a police roadblock."

A = "The traffic is caused by an accident" ; R = "The traffic is caused by a police roadblock"

8. "If Michael goes on vacation this quarter, Hanna has to work a few extra shifts."

M = "Michael goes on vacation this quarter" ; H = "Hanna has to work a few extra shifts"

. "Wendy wants to go clubbing, even though she is tired from work."

W = "Wendy wants to go clubbing" ; T = "Wendy is tired from work"

"Bob will pass the course only if he does all of the extra credit assignments."

P = "Bob will pass the course" ; C = "Bob does all of the extra credit assignments"

Question 41219


Summary Writing

For this question, imagine that you are in charge of a large company of your choosing. (Ideally, you would choose a company that best allows you to demonstrate your understanding of the relevant concepts.) You are tasked with creating a policy for obtaining information on your employees: this policy should include lie-detection, drug testing, and monitoring. Furthermore, let's assume that your company has access to a machine that detect s whether someone is lying with 100% accuracy.Assuming you want your policy to be morally justified, how would you design the policy? How might an employee and/or customer argue that your policy is unethical, and if so, how would you respond?^

Question 41218


Summary Writing

Choose two products or service suitable to this question. (When I say "suitable", what I mean is to choose products or services that allow you to demonstrate your understanding of the concepts that are relevant to this question. If you prefer, you can create new, hypothetical products or services that does not currently exist.)

Analyze whether legal paternalism would be justified for this product/service. (I expect you to employ the relevant framework for assessing this question.) Feel free to consider it from multiple perspectives in your analysis. Next, describe how a libertarian paternalist might approach the situation. In doing so, be sure to show me that you understand legal and libertarian paternalism, and well as the approach I proposed in class for determining whether a product or services should be banned on the grounds of legal paternalism.

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