1. Discuss the two commercially most important properties of crude oils

2. What is the specific gravity of a 30° API gravity oil? (0.5 Marks)

3. What do you mean by Reid vapor pressure. How is performance of a spark ignition motor engine effected if the fuel's Reid vapor pressure is too high or too low ?

4.What is the elemental composition of most crude oils?

5. What has been the impact of Russia Ukraine conflict on the global oil market?

Solve the following BVP-ODE with the Finite-Difference, Shooting, and Successive Over- relaxation Methods. Use a step size of 0.01. You may use MATLAB or Excel/VBA to solve these BV-ODES. Remember to completely annotate your programs and turn in your complete programs and output. Also turn in a complete description of your algorithm that you used in the program, i.e., as shown in the notes and examples in class. Compare and contrast the use of all three BVPnumerical methods that were used to solve this problem. A chemical reactor with axial dispersion is governed by the following equations:

Explain what is the difference between Andesite and Diorite? (4 marks)

) Explain the working of a rock cycle and how it plays an important role in petroleum geology?

2.1. Based on the data in Table 2, determine the selectivity (separation factor). 2.2. Based on the data in Table 2, determine the distribution coefficient (K).

What is the main difference between extracting Oil Shales and Tar Sands?

d) While an unknown mineral was tested for its hardness, it was observed that mineral could be scratched by steel nail as well as glass plate. However, mineral was not scratched when copper penny was used. What is the hardness range of the mineral?

Explain the process of diagenesis, catagenesis and metagenesis in detail.

What differentiates Isopach maps from Isochore maps? (

A mixed hydrocarbon stream must be distilled in a continuous distillation column. The flow rate of the feed is 1000 kmol/h. The feed enters as a liquid at its boiling point. The feed mixture containing six components (CH4 = 0.032, C2H4 = 0.068, C2H6 = 0.17, C3H6= 0.30, C3H8 = 0. 32, n-C4H10 = 0.11) is to be separated by distillation. It is desired to recover 98.5% mole fraction of the light key in the distillate and 98% of the heavy keyin the bottom product. The average relative volatility (a) values are given in Table 1.The a can be assumed to remain constant with any temperature variation. 1.Determine the light key (LK) and heavy key (HK). 2.Use Underwood's method to determine the minimum reflux ratio (the 0 valuesto try are 1.1.1.17 and 1.2).(15) Use the Fenske equation to determine the minimum number of trays.

e) Explain different types of petroleum traps and their importance in trapping mechanism of oil.

a) Explain how Geological Time Scale describes the timing and relationships between events that have occurred throughout Earth's history? (4 Marks)

1. A drillstring consists of 9,000 ft 5 in, 19.5 lbm/ft drillpipe, and1,000 ft of 8 in OD, 3in ID drill collars. What is the: (a) Volume of the drillpipe in bbl. (b) Volume of the drill collars in bbl (c) Number of pump cycles required to pump surface mud to the bit(duplex pump, 6 in liners, 2.5 in rods, 16 i strokes, pumping at 85 % volumetric efficiency). (d) Displacement of drillpipes in bbl/ ft (e) Displacement of drill collars in bbl/ft.

) What differentiates cleavage from fracture of a mineral? (1.5 marks)

O Explain the process of diagenesis, catagenesis and metagenesis in detail.

It has been established that an existing distillation column in your plant can separate hydrocarbon mixture efficiently, when operated on a continuous basis. You are,however, informed by your mechanical engineer that the pressure at the top of the column must not exceed 320 kPa. Only cooling water is available on the plant and thus the top temperature of the column is thus limited to 45°C. Do dew point temperature calculations to determine whether the restrictions mentioned above prevent you from recommending that the column may be used if the overhead vapour has the following composition: It can be assumed that these hydrocarbons form an ideal solution and that Raoult`slaw can be used to determine the K– values. The following formula can be used to calculate the vapour pressure, p* of each component: log p* = AT + B where A and B are constants that are given in the table4 below and T is the temperature in K and the unit of p* is kPa.

Using the Production NODAL System diagram below answer the followings: A. Calculate the inflow node pressures at point 6 shown in the diagram. B. Calculate the outflow node pressures at point 6 shown in the diagram. C. Calculate the inflow node pressures at point 3 shown in the diagram. D. Calculate the outflow node pressures at point 3 shown in the diagram.

The following PVT data are from a volumetric oil reservoir at an initial pressure of 2000 psia.The connate water saturation is 25%. Assume negligible rock and water compressibilities. 1. Was this reservoir initially saturated or under saturated? Why? 2. When the reservoir pressure fell to 1500 psia, the cumulative production of oil and gas were 7.5 MMstb and 9.5 Bscf respectively. Estimate the initial oil in place. 3. What was the initial reservoir pore volume?

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