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• Q2: Condensed Matter 1) Obtain expressions for the heat capacity due to longitudinal vibrations of a chain of identical atoms; (a) in the Debye approximation; (b) using the exact density of states (Eq. below). With the same constants K and M, which expression gives the greater heat capacity and why? Show that at low temperatures both expressions give the same heat capacity, proportional to T. g(w) Hint: L (M\1/2 ла K &F sec (ka) 2N (4K 1/² - 0²) M 2) Estimate the Fermi temperatures of: (a) liquid ³He (density 81 kg m-³), and (b) the neutrons in a neutron star (density 10¹7 kg m−³). <-1/2 h² (3π²N\2/3 2m N(M¹/2 2(K/M)¹/2 T K (4K/M-²)¹/2 3) The Bragg angle for a certain reflection from a powder specimen of copper is 47.75° at a temperature of 293 K and 46.60° at 1273 K. Calculate the coefficient of linear thermal expansion of copper. 4) The crystal basis of graphene and of diamond is composed of two carbon atoms in nonequivalent position. Thus, their dispersion curves are composed of acoustical branches and optical branches and their acoustical branches are assumed to obey to the Debye approximation: = vs|k| and their optical branches are assumed to obey to the Einstein model @= @E = Cst. Deduce the numerical values of their Debye and Einstein temperatures from their crystal structure and their common sound. velocity, Vs = 18,000 m/s with also VE (Einstein frequency) at about 4 *10¹3 Hz. From the Cv graph shown in below, evaluate the specific heat of diamond at room temperature, 290 K. (h, kB) 100 75 50 25 0 C, (%) x 3;2;1 NkB unit 0 1D -2D -3D T/0₂ 1 Heat capacity, C, as a function of T/05 for 1D, 2D, and 3D solids. The vertical scale is in Nkg unit to multiply by 1, 2, or 3 as a function of the degree of freedom for the atom vibrations. Note the initial evolution in T, T2, or 73 as a function of the dimensionality of the solid. 5) (1) Knowing that lithium crystallizes in a cubic system with lattice considering its atomic mass (7) and its volumetric mass (546 kg⋅m-³), find which one is it ([simple cubic, body- centered cubic (bcc), or face-centered cubic (fcc)]? (2) Knowing that the valence electrons of this metal (1 per atom) behave as free electrons, find the shape of the Fermi surface and its expression and then calculate its characteristic dimension KF. (3) Compare KF obtained in (2) to the distance dm, which in reciprocal space separates the origin from the first boundary of the first Brillouin zone nearest the origin. (Evaluate dm using simple geometric considerations without having to sketch the first Brillouin zone.) (4) Find the Fermi energy of lithium EF, the Fermi temperature TF, and the speed of F of the fastest free electrons. (5) Knowing that the resistivity p of lithium is of the order 10-5 cm at ambient temperature, find the time of flight, t, and the mean free path A of conduction electrons. (6) Find the drift velocity vd of conduction electrons subject to a electric field of 1 V/m and compare it with the Fermi velocity VF. (7) Starting from the relation ke =1/3 CeVFA (or with the help of the Wiedemann-Franz expression), find the thermal conductivity due to electrons Ke of lithium at ambient temperature T = 300 K.See Answer
• Q3:2. (Target T1) While the simplicity of the ideal gas model makes it a good tool for understanding the foundation of many systems, this simplicity means it is not so useful when you need more precision. There are other models for real gases. One model gives the equation of state as N²o (P + №²a) (v (V-NB) = KT V2 where a and 3 are constants that depend on the molecules that make up the gas (specifically, a is related to the electrostatic interactions between molecules, and ß is related to the size of a molecule). Determine the work done by this gas on its surroundings as it expands from an initial volume Vo to a final volume 3V at a constant temperature To. Your result will be in terms of Vo, To, N, and constants.See Answer
• Q4: Partial Melt. If 2×105 J of energy in terms of heat is transferred to 3 kg of ice at 0 °C, how much ice melted in kg?See Answer
• Q5: Partial Melt. If 2x105 J of energy in terms of heat is transferred to 3 kg of ice at 0 °C, how much ice melted in kg?See Answer
• Q6: 1. What is the total heat Q requires to melt a 2 kg ice at -5 °C to water at +10 °C ? Hint there is a phase change in the system. There are 3 separate Qs.See Answer
• Q7: 7. An object is hung from scale and the reading is recorded to be 20 N. Then the object is completely immersed in water.What is the new scale reading if the object has a volume of 12.5x105 m². The density of water is 1000kg/m³ See Answer
• Q8: One considers the coupling of the orbital angular momenta of two p electrons. a) From the tables of the Clebsh-Gordan coefficients, give the explicit form of the following states: |L M> = |2 2>, 12 1>, |2 0>, |1 1>, |1 -1> et 0 0>. b) What can you say about the symmetry properties of the obtained states with respect to the exchange of the two electrons?See Answer
• Q9: Two moles of ideal mono atomic gas releases 6 000 J of heat when it is compressed by an external force. A 2 000J ofwork done on the gas during compression. 3. What is the change in the internal energy of the gas? 4. What is the change in the temp of the gas in Kelvin?See Answer
• Q10: a) What are the values of the quantum numbers S, L and J in the ground state of nitrogen? b) What are the angles between the total angular momentum , and the quantification axis z?See Answer
• Q11: 5. An Aluminum rod is 20 cm long at 20 °C and has a mass of 350 g. If 10,000 J of thermal energy is added to the rod by heat, what is the change in the length of the rod in cm?See Answer
• Q12: 2.One way to heat a gas is to compress it. When a certain gas under pressure of 2,000,000 Pa at 298.15 Kelvin is allowed to be compressed to 1/4 of its original volume, its final pressure is 3 times the initial pressure. What is its final temp?Hint use ideal gas law.See Answer
• Q13: 6. A hot-air balloon has a volume of 2200 m². The basket, passengers and the balloon fabric (the envelope) weight 5,800 N,excluding the weight of heated gas in the envelope. If the balloon is floating in the air without accelerating upward or downward when the outside air density is 1.23 kg/m³, what is the average density of the heated gases in the envelope?See Answer
• Q14: Show from the Tables of the Clebsh-Gordan coefficients that the singulet and triplet states resulting from the coupling of the intrinsic spins of the two electrons of the He atom are indeed those given by the relations (II.23) and(11.24.11.25.11.26.) of the lecture notes.See Answer

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