Petrochemical Production Technology

Questions & Answers

A high-pressure cell has a volume of 1.0 ft3 and contains a gas of gas gravity GG = 0.65 a t3000 psia and 150 °F. The gas include 2% of H₂S, 3% of N₂ and 4% of CO2. Unknown amount of the gas measured at 14.7 Psia and 60 °F was lost from the cell through a leaky valve, as the pressure and temperature in the cell dropped to 2000 psia and 120 °F. Calculate the gas deviation factor (Z) at the final conditions (2000 Psia at 120 °F)? Calculate the gas compressibility (Cg) at the final conditions. How many SCF of the gas were lost from the tank?

A consolidated sandstone core sample (d2.1 cm and L = 3.6 cm) is%3|saturated with brine of 0.52 N.m resistivity. The core was desaturated insteps, and the following resistance (N) were measured at each saturation.[You can use excel to draw the data, then use your ruler to estimate the required parameters, also learn how to list the values by hand on a Log-Log scale] a) Estimate the rock porosityb) Determine the saturation exponent of the rock b) Determine the saturation exponent, n, of the rock

1.Resistivity of the rock fully saturated with brine is denoted by thesymbol 2.Water resistivity is denoted by the symbol 3.The resistivity in the flushed zone is denoted by the symbol 4.The shoulder bed resistivity is denoted by the symbol 5.The diameter of invasion is denoted by the symbol

A reservoir, with a pattern area of 30 acres, is to be water flooded with a five-spot pattern.The reservoir is 15 ft thick and has a porosity of 0.13 and the initial water saturation is0.38 which is considered immobile. Viscosities of oil and water are 2.3 and 1.1 cp respectively. The residual oil saturation is 0.21. FVF’s for oil and water are assumed to be 1.0. Relative permeability data corresponding to the displacement of oil by water are given in the following equations: k_{r o}=\left(1-S_{w D}\right)^{242} k_{n=}=0.78 S_{w D}^{3,8} where: S_{w D}=\frac{\left(S_{w}-S_{b w}\right)}{\left(1-S_{o r}-S_{w}\right)} Assume a pressure drop of 500 psi, K= 0.1 darcy, rw=0.5 ft. 1- Using CGM method and Caudle-Witte approach, predict the performance of the waterflooding. - At water fractional flow of 0.92, calculate the NPV given the following (OP =40$/STB, WIC=1.08 $/STB, WHC = 0.75 $/STB, DF = 0.09) \text { Plot } N_{p}, W_{i}, W p, q_{t}, q_{o}, q_{w}, f_{w}, \bar{S}_{w}, \text { versus time. }

1. The saturation exponent. 2. The resistivity of the rock when Sw = 40%. 3. Estimate the resistivity index when the water saturation equals 20%.

The following formation resistivity factors were measured on a suite of gas taken from a producing formation. Determine the coefficient a and the exponent m of this equation. Do appropriate plot. [You can use excel to draw the data, then use your ruler to estimate a & m values, also learn how to list the values by hand on a Log-Log scale] F=a \phi^{-m}

A heavy naphtha is fed to a catalytic reformer at a rate of 271 mol/h. The composition of the heavy naphtha is listed in the following table: Determine the following: a) The mole flow for each component in the product of this reformer. b) The composition of the product from this reformer.

Kerosene is a petroleum product that used for heating and lightening and it is used in engines. a. Describe chemical composition of Kerosene, naphtha, diesel, andgasoline (chain length, and number of carbons). b. What is the boiling rage for kerosene? And how it is compared tothe boiling range of diesel and naphtha, and gasoline? c. Compare kerosene to naphtha, gasoline and diesel oil (heavier or lighter) d. Compare the volatility of kerosene to gasoline, naphta. e. What are the major properties of kerosene that determine itsburning quality? f. Compare the flash points of kerosene, gasoline and determine which of them is safe for storage? g. Categorize the kerosene and naphtha as flammable or combustible? h. Describe how can kerosene be analyzed for trace metals?

A) Calculate the velocity of Ethane stream flowing at 100 MMSCFD in a 8 in steel pipe at 492 R and600 psi with a compressibility factor of 0.9. (2.5 marks ) B) Demonstrate if the pipe will be exposed to any corrosion or not. Explain why. ( 1.5marks )

Given the following system of equations: 16 s+32 u+33 p+13 w=91 5 s+11 u+10 p+8 w=16 9 s+7 u+6 p+12 w=5 34 s+14 u+15 p+w=43 a) Determine the values of s, u, p and w using matrix manipulation in MATLAB (use invand/or backslash \). b) Solve the system of linear equations, showing three complete iterations, using the following methods. Calculate the absolute relative approximate errors: i. Gauss-Seidel iterative method. ii. Jacobi iterative methods. iii. Gauss-Seidel with relaxation, with 2 0.8. c) Solve the system of linear equations using the appropriate MATLAB function. You may use GaussSeidel, Isolve, Isolvep or even your own code. i. Using Gauss-Seidel iterative method, how many iterations are needed for 6 significant figures accuracy. ii. Using Jacobi iterative method. Print the first 3 iterations in a table format. iii. Using GaussSeidel with relaxation. Plot the number of iterations for 0 <A<2,using 0.2 steps.

A) Calculate the minimum pipe thickness based on requirements of ASME B31.3, considering proper Corrosion & Mill Tolerance Allowances, while selecting nominal thickness. The pipe should be designed for crude serve at refinery and having the following data :- ( 3.5 marks ) Design Pressure, P= 800psi Design Temperature, T=350 F Nominal Pipe Diameter, 6 in Pipe Schedule ( STD, 5S,10S,XS,XSS ..etc) Mechanical Allowances inc. Corrosion Allowance,=0..23 in Mill Tolerance12.5% Type of pipe= seamless Outside Diameter, 6.5in Allowable Stress, S=15000 psi B) If the above given data is for a crude line transferred from one of the gathering center at Ahmadi to the Refinery, and needed to be utilized to design the pipe. What would be the minimum wall thickness to allow for a stress of 25,000 psi.( use code B31.4) (2 marks) C) Analyze the answers for A & B, compare, and state the reasons behind your selection. (

A heavy naphtha feed is introduced to a catalytic reforming unit to generate a reformate. The volumetric flow rate of the heavy naphtha is 200 m'/h. The heavy naphtha comprises 25 vol%naphthene, 70 vol% Paraffins and the remaining is aromatics. The RON of the reformate is 96.Calculate the yields of each product in this reformer.

A 200 mol/h of heavy naphtha is introduced to catalytic reformer to produce reformate. The composition of the feed as well as the constants (a,b) for the equilibrium constants K are given for each component in feed in the following table: Determine the composition of the product at T= 550 °C and pressure 15 bar.

Visual Presentation Abstract Structure Research Thinking (Identify the points you want to add to each category) Good Cover page. Sections headings. Graphics included. Professional looking. Outstanding Cover page with relevant info, including descriptive title. Section headings. Good graphics, with appropriate citations. Clean and professional looking. Abstract is proper length. Highly informative, complete and easy to understand. Appropriate vocabulary is used. Abstract makes you want to read the paper. Thesis is clear, easy to find, and appropriate to the assignment. Thesis is supported by the rest of the paper. Paper contains a "roadmap" for the reader. There is a logical flow to the topics/arguments. Conclusion follows dearly from the arguments presented. The evidence comes from a wide variety of vallid sources. Arguments are pertinent to the topic. Arguments are logical, supported with evidence. The key arguments have been made - no major points have been left out. Abstract is proper length. Informative, complete and understandable. Appropriate vocabulary is used. Interest Factor Language and style appropriate for intended audience. Paper presents well-developed analysis and synthesis. There is nuance, inference and subtlety to the paper. Main points are memorable. Reader is very engaged. The bibliography is complete and reflects appropriate sources. The evidence used reflects multi-The evidence used re- ple views. flects multiple views. The evidence comes from vallid sources. The bibliography is complete. Thesis is clear and ap- propriate. Thesis fairly well sup- ported. Paper is fairly well organized. nized. Conclusion follows from the rest of the paper. Arguments are pertinent to the topic. Arguments are fairly logical and reasonably supported. Most key arguments have been made. Language and style appropriate. Paper presents rea- sonable analysis and synthesis. Fair Most relevant informa- tion present. Some section head- ings, captions, or graphics used. Looks like H.S. paper. There is a little nuance, inference and subtlety. Main points clear. Reader is engaged. Abstract is proper length. Somewhat informative and understandable. Thesis is fairly clear. Inconsistent support for thesis. Paper weakly orga- Conclusion is accept- able. Valid sources are in- consistently used. The bibliography is missing some pieces. Arguments are not consistently pertinent, logical, or supported. Few key arguments have been made. Language and style only fair. Less-developed analy- sis and synthesis. Nuance, inference and subtlety lacking. Main points present, not well made. Unacceptable Relevant information is missing. Missing titles, captions, headings, name of author. Not professional. Abstract is not the proper length. Not very informative or understandable. Thesis unclear and/or inappropriate. Thesis not supported. Paper is not organized. Conclusion doesn't follow from the rest of the paper. The evidence seldom comes from valid sources. The bibliography is miss- ing significant information. Arguments not pertinent. Arguments rarely, if at all, logical and supported. Almost no key arguments have been made. Language and style poor. Analysis and synthesis lacking. Main points not discern- able.

Consider the following simultaneous nonlinear equations: x^{2}+y+z=6 x y z+z=9 x^{2}+y^{2}+z^{2}=14 Starting from the initial guesses: xo = 1.5, yo = 2.5 and zo = 3.5, perform the following: a) Determine the roots of the system of equations using the successive substitution method.Perform three complete iteration. Show your calculations. b) Determine the roots of the system of equations using the Newton-Raphosn method. Perform the computations until & = 7%. Show your calculations. c) Write a MATLAB script that performs ten iterations of the Newton-Raphson method. d) Solve the system of equations by calling the function newtmult, with an accuracy of 10 significant figures.Page 1 of 1

Light Naphtha is fed to an isomerisation unit to generate reformate. The volumetric flow rate of light naphtha is 250 m/h with APl equals 70. Determine the following: a) The yields of each component in the product.t b) The composition of the product. \text { Knowing that: } A P I=\frac{141.5}{S G}-131.5

|Consider a counter flow heat exchanger application. A proprietary fluid made by company-X is aliquid that has to be cooled from 140°F to 80°F in a concentric (pipe in pipe) counterflow heatexchanger. Cooling water enters the outer pipe at 50°F and leaves at 75°F. The overall heattransfer coefficient for this process is reported to be 238.8 Btu/(ft’ h °F). The proprietary fluidflows through the inner tube with a velocity of 5 ft/s. The inner pipe has an inside-diameter of0.745 inches and an outer-diameter that is 7/8 inches. The material of construction for the innerpipe is a metal with a very high thermal conductivity. Calculate the mass flow rate of water Calculate the Log Mean Temperature Difference |Calculate the convective heat transfer coefficient for the proprietary fluid in the tube Calculate the convective heat transfer coefficient for the water on the shell side Calculate the length in the inner pipe Calculate the NTU for this system Calculate the effectiveness for this system

1. Determine the collapse pressure regime for 11 3/4", grade K-55 and thickness 0.723 inch.(1.5marks) 2. A vertical separator has ID of 36" and handles liquid of 1500 BPD . Following is the oil and gas data feeding the separator (2.5 marks) Gas Density: 4.0 lbm/ft³ MW: 20 lb/mol Gas Molar Volume: 379.5 scf/mole Sp.g of oil =44Ibm/cubic feet K factor= 0.32 ft/sec Calculate the liquid capacity of the separator in (bbl/hour) when retention time is 6 minutes,and liquid volume 22bbl.

Gas dehydration process.

Gas sweetening process.

The use of Gas chromatography in natural gas engineering.

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