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**Q1:**Complete ALL questions below and upload your answers under the assignment for this unit. You can either print out the document and answer on the sheet, or answer on separate paper. Once you've finished, either scan or clearly photograph your answers to upload them. 1. The iPhone Effect Researchers wanted to investigate whether the presence of mobile phones influences the quality of in-person social interactions. In a field experiment, 100 pairs of participants were observed during the course of a 10-minute conversation. The researchers recorded whether participants placed a mobile phone on the table or held it in their hand. The researchers measured the level of connectedness and empathetic concern at the end of the conversation for those with a mobile phone present and those where it was absent. (Source: adapted from Mirsa et al. (1999)) a) State a null hypothesis and a two-tailed (non-directional) alternative hypothesis for the iPhone effect study. b) Explain why the experimental/research design used in the iPhone effect study was appropriate. Page 1 Question 1 is continued overleaf/nStatistical research c) Explain one strength of using a field experiment for this study. The total word limit for question 1 is 250 words. This does not include calculations.See Answer**Q2:**Statistical research 2. Working memory training Working memory training is where people repeatedly practise increasingly difficult working memory tasks to attempt to improve their cognitive performance. Researchers wanted to see how working memory training affected recognition performance of a list of words. They recruited 100 participants who were allocated to either the working memory training group (Condition 1) or the control group (Condition 2). At the beginning of the study, all participants in Condition 1 and Condition 2 were read 20 target words. The participants then had to try and recognise the 20 target words from a list of 60 words, where 40 were new words. All participants were given two minutes to recognise as many of the target words as they could. During the next three weeks: • Condition 1 (working memory training group) completed a session of working memory training for 90 minutes, once a week. • Condition 2 (control group) did no working memory training. After the three-week period, the participants then performed another memory recognition task. As before, they had to learn a list of 20 words from a list of 60 words, where 40 were new words. (Source: adapted from Matzen et al. (2016)) a) State a fully operationalised directional (one-tailed) alternative hypothesis for the working memory training study./nStatistical research b) The number of words correctly recognised (out of 20) by participants was recorded as a measure of memory performance by the researchers. State which level of measurement the number of words correctly recognised (out of 20) for each participant would be in the working memory training study. c) The working memory training study used a laboratory experiment to assess the memory of the participants. Explain two strengths of using a laboratory experiment for the working memory training study. The total word limit for question 2 is 250 words. This does not include calculations.See Answer**Q3:**3. 'Larks and Owls' Researchers used a questionnaire to find out from 500 students whether they preferred carrying out cognitive activities in the morning or in the evening. The students who preferred mornings were called 'Larks' and those who preferred evenings were called 'Owls'. Students found to have no preference were called 'In Betweens'. The results of the questionnaire found 315 'Owls', 53 'Larks' and 132 'In Betweens'. The researchers wanted to test whether 'Larks' were better at cognitive activities in the morning and 'Owls' better in the evening, as predicted from the preferences. Using the 368 students who were 'Larks' or 'Owls', the researchers asked them to perform cognitive activities in controlled conditions. There were two types of cognitive activity: one tested creativity and the other tested analysis skills. Each type of activity had 20 cognitive tasks for the students to complete. Each student had to complete all 40 cognitive tasks twice on one day, between 9am and 10am in the morning, then again between 3pm and 4pm in the afternoon. The scores indicate the number of tasks in each type of cognitive activity that the students performed correctly. Table 1 shows the mean number of tasks out of 40 that were correct. 'Larks' 'Owls' Totals 9am to 10am Creative 10 8 18 Analysis 15 12 27 Total 25 20 45 3pm to 4pm Creative Table 1 6 12 18 Analysis 14 15 29 Total 20 27 47 Overall total 45 47 92 (Source: Adapted from Roberts and Kyllonen (1999))/nStatistical research a) Analyse the data provided in Table 1 to explain three conclusions that the researchers might draw from these results./nTable 2 shows the mean number of tasks out of 40 that were correct for 'Larks' and 'Owls' in the morning. 'Larks' 'Owls' Totals 9am to 10am Creative 10 8 18 Analysis 15 Page 7 12 27 Total 25 20 45 Table 2 b) Analyse the data provided in Table 2 to explain whether the results are likely to show a significant difference. You do not need to perform a hypothesis test. The total word limit for question 3 is 300 words. This does not include calculations.See Answer**Q4:**Statistical research 4. Rajmund investigated the influence of personality on obedience levels. He used a self- report questionnaire where participants rated their authoritarian personality traits and obedience. The results of Rajmund's investigation are shown in Table 1 below. Participant A B C D E F G H Authoritarian personality score (out of 20) 18 5 14 6 9 12 8 4 Obedience score (out of 20) 7 17 9 17 13 8 15 19 Table 1 a) Calculate the mean for the authoritarian personality scores./nb) Calculate the mode for the obedience scores. Participant A B C D E F G Total Mean x Obedience score (out of 20) 7 17 9 17 13 8 15 86 12.29 (x - x) -5.29 4.71 -3.29 4.71 0.71 -4.29 2.71 Total (x − x)² 27.98 22.18 10.82 22.18 0.50 18.40 7.34 Table 2 c) Rajmund decided to use the standard deviation as a measure of dispersion for his data. Calculate the standard deviation for the obedience scores shown in Table 2. You must show your working and give your answer to two decimal places. More space for Question 4 is given overleaf, if neededSee Answer**Q5:**5. Group Condition 1 (working memory training group) Condition 2 (control group) b) Performance on memory recognition task (out of 20) at the beginning of the study 13.3 11.9 Number of words recognised correctly (out of 20) at the end of the study Table 1 a) The mean results of a working memory training study are shown in Table 1. Explain two conclusions that could be made using the data in Table 1. 0-5 words 6-10 words 11-15 words 16-20 words Table 2 Performance on memory recognition task (out of 20) at the end of the study Page 11 Frequency 10.7 10 40 30 20 12.1 i. The results of the working memory training group at the end of the study are shown in Table 2. On the next page, draw a histogram to display the data in Table 2./nii. Interpret the histogram that you have drawn for part (i). The total word limit for question 5 is 300 words. This does not include calculations. Page 12 Version 1.1See Answer**Q6:**6. Psychologists used a questionnaire to investigate whether the attitudes of local people towards newcomers (non-locals) were positive or negative. They found the following results: Participant Statistical research A B C D a) E F G H | J Mean ratings of attitudes of local people to newcomers Mode ratings of attitudes of local people to newcomers Mean number of positive attitudes (out of 10) 3 5 1 1 5 5 1 3 5 6 3.5 Table 1 Mean number of negative attitudes (out of 10) 6 8 5 4 4 8 4 8 8 6 6.1 i. Complete the table above to show the modes from the data in Table 1./nii. Statistical research Give one reason why the mode is not the most useful measure of central tendency when analysing this data. b) Another descriptive statistic for this data is dispersion. There are two measures of dispersion: range and standard deviation. Explain which measure of dispersion is best for this data. The total word limit for question 6 is 200 words. This does not include calculations.See Answer**Q7:**7. A researcher carried out an experiment to investigate misleading information. Participants were shown a photograph in which a man and a woman were talking. The photograph was then taken away and the participants were asked questions about it. Participants were randomly allocated to condition one or condition two. Participants in condition one were asked: Question A "How old was the youth in the photograph?" Participants in condition two were asked: Question B "How old was the man in the photograph?" a) Why is Question A an example of misleading information? b) Name an appropriate experimental design which could be used in this experiment. Explain why a repeated measures design would be unsuitable to use in this experiment./nc) Explain why it would be appropriate to use a pilot study as part of this experiment. d) In this experiment, participants were asked to look at a photograph rather than watch a live conversation. Explain one strength and one limitation of carrying out the experiment in this way. e) Outline and evaluate research into the effects of misleading information on eyewitness testimony. The total word limit for question 7 is 600 words. This does not include calculations.See Answer**Q8:**● Choose any published database from the internet (such as those from the Census Bureau or any financial or sports sites) or from your workplace. You may opt to use one of the data files provided by the instructor if applicable. Your chosen database must be pre-approved by the instructor. If the file is large than 200 observations, randomly choose 200 observations from the data. Explain each variable in the file that you are analyzing. Be sure your file includes at least 3 scale variables and at least 2 nominal variables. Conduct a descriptive analysis on any 2 interval / ratio variables you wish using Conduct 3 different hypothesis tests of your choice using appropriate variables from the file • Complete Regression analysis Write a one to two page summary of your findings. Include the data file in the appendix. Expectations: Copy & paste the Excel displays into a Word file if you can. Upload the Word file (or the Excel files) for credit. Comments in which you describe your findings should be included with each display. APA formatting is not required but the assignment should be formatted professionally so that it flows well for weekly assignments and you should adhere to the rules of written English in your punctuation, grammar and spelling.See Answer**Q9:**1. a) List independent and dependent data, labeling each with name and variable. Sample size should be 30-50. b) Cite source. c) Explain what each variable represents. d) Write a paragraph explaining the reasons why variation in dependent variable may be explained by variation in independent variables. Answer for each independent variable. COMPLETE THIS EXPLANATION BEFORE REGRESSION ANALYSIS STARTS.See Answer**Q10:**2. Using Data Analysis in Excel, run Descriptive Statistics for Dependent Variable (Y) and both Independent Variables (X1, X2), with labels. Consider the data presentation.See Answer**Q11:**3. Run Simple Regression for each independent variable separately: X1 Y and then X2 Y. Consider the data presentation. a) Write regression equation. b) Explain equation for each.See Answer**Q12:**4. Run Multiple Regression Analysis: X1 X2 Y Consider the data presentation. a) Write regression equation. b) Explain equation.See Answer**Q13:**Project Details Your submission for the Midterm Project should be a Jamovi file with a .omv extension AND a document with the information outlined below: A. Select one of the datasets provided. B. Create two sets of hypotheses (i.e., a null hypothesis AND a research/alternative for each). 1. One must be able to be tested using an independent means and independent samples t-test. 2. One must be able to be tested using a dependent means or paired samples t-test. C. Describe the variables you used in your hypotheses. 1. Describe the variables used in the hypotheses in words (i.e., variable level, IV/DV). 2. Describe demographic information for FOUR variables. Describe the variables numerically (i.e., number and percent for nominal/ordinal level variables and a measure of central tendency and a measure of variability for interval/ratio level variables). 3. Create one histogram and describe the mode(s) (i.e., unimodal, bimodal, multimodal) and shape (i.e., skewed to the left, skewed to the right, symmetrical). D. Test your hypotheses using the appropriate statistical procedure in Jamovi. For each hypothesis, write a paragraph that states the statistics you ran and why. 1. Write the results of what you found in APA style and provide relevant output at the end of the report. 2. State whether your results support or fail to support the research/alternative hypothesis. E. Create a report that combines what you completed and found in the main bullet points B - D; this will be like the Template linked above.See Answer**Q14:**Instructions The owner of a restaurant with an outdoor patio notices that sales tend to increase on hotter days. He runs a regression... Sales = 142,850 - 3,643.17(Temperature) + 23.3(Temperature)² 1. What would you expect the shape of the regression line to be based on the signs of the 31 and 32 coefficients? 2. 3. Pick a value for Temperature between 81-100 degrees F and solve the equation. What would we predict restaurant sales to be at that temperature? Pick a value for Temperature between 65-80 degrees F and solve the equation. What would we predict restaurant sales to be at that temperature? 4. How might the restaurant owner use this information to help manage his business? The manager of the restaurant notices that sales tend to be higher on weekends with nicer weather (1= weekend, 0 = weekday). He runs a regression... Sales = 155 +104(Temperature) + 2,780(Weekend) + 302(Temperature x Weekend) 1. Pick a value for Temperature between 81-100 degrees F. What would the predicted sales be for a weekend (Weekend = 1)? 2. What would the predicted sales be for a weekday (Weekend = 0)? 3. Does nicer weather on the weekends have a significant impact on sales? 4. How might the restaurant owner use this information to help manage his business?See Answer**Q15:**= A14. Consider the Moment Generating Function (MGF) of the Binomial distribution Mx(t) = ((1 − p) + pet) (p is the probability of success and n is the number of trials). Using the MGF derive E[X] and Var[X].See Answer**Q16:**A15. Consider random independent variables X₁, X2,... Xn which take 0 with the probability 1 - p and 1 with the probability p. (a) Derive an expression for EX₁ [x] (b) Find the Fisher's information I (p)See Answer**Q17:**A3. Let Y₁ and Y₂ have joint density f(y1, y2) What is the value of c? = 3c(1- y₂) on 0 ≤ y ≤ 2 and 0 ≤ y2 ≤ 1. A: B:2 C: D:3 3See Answer**Q18:**A4. In question A3 above, what is the value of P(Y₂ < 0.5)? 3 A: B: C: D:4 4 3See Answer**Q19:**A5. In question A3 above, what is the value of P(Y₁ > 1)? A: 0.55 B: 0.1 C: D: 2 113See Answer**Q20:**A6. Consider a continuous random variable X~ Uniform(a, 2a), where a > 0. Use the method of moments to estimate a. Which of the estimates below is correct? A: ã = 2. X, B: ã = X, C: a = 2 XSee Answer

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