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**Q1:**UMass RESEC 262 Summer 1) The Clean Air Act requires the EPA to set these standards "requisite to protect the public health" with "an adequate margin of safety." This has been referred to as zero-risk standards. Use the graph below to answer the questions below concerning the economics of zero-risk ambient concentration standards. Aggregate marginal abatement costs A¹ A² A³ Aggregate marginal damage A4 Problem A5 Ambient concentration a. What is the maximum ambient concentration in the graph that would achieve the zero-risk goal? [1 point] b. Is a zero-risk ambient concentration standard likely to be efficient? Why? [2 point]See Answer**Q2:**UMass MAC₂ RESEC 262 Summer 2) In the graph below are aggregate marginal abatement cost (MAC) and marginal damage (MD) functions for two regions of the country, 1 and 2. Use it to answer questions below. A¹ MAC₁ 1 I MD₁ A² A³ A4 MD₂ Problem Ambient concentration a. Indicate the efficient ambient standards in the graph above. [1 point] b. Use the graph to explain why a uniform ambient concentration standard for the country will be inefficient. [2 points]See Answer**Q3:**UMass ΜΑ CA 3) Below is the graph of the marginal abatement cost schedules of two firms, A and B. Suppose that the two firms face a uniform emissions standard Eº. Explain why this is not a cost-effective policy to control emissions. [2 points] ΜΑ CB RESEC 262 Summer ED Problem EmissionsSee Answer**Q4:**UMass RESEC 262 Summer a 4) The firm in the graph below faces a tax for each unit of emissions that it releases. Marginal abatement cost b Emissions Problem a. Clearly mark in the graph the firm's choice of emissions when it faces the tax 7. [1 point] b. What is the: [3 points] i. total tax bill ii. total abatement costs, and iii. total compliance costs when it faces the tax 7.See Answer**Q5:**UMass IN RESEC 262 Summer 5) In the graph below are the marginal abatement costs of two firms, A and B. Suppose that they face the same emissions tax. Marginal abatement costs for firm A E Problem Marginal abatement costs for firm B Emissions a. In the graph indicate each firm's choice of emissions. Label these choices as EA and EB. [1 point] b. Use your answer to (a) to explain why an emissions tax will be a cost- effective policy tool. Three or four sentences should be enough. [2 points]See Answer**Q6:**UMass RESEC 262 Summer Problem 6) In the graph below, marginal enforcement costs have been added to aggregate marginal abatement costs to indicate that enforcement costs are an additional cost of controlling emissions. Aggregate Marginal Abatement Coggregate Marginal Damage ($) Aggregate Marginal Abatement Cost plus Marginal Enforcement Costs Emissions EU a. In the graph identify the efficient emissions tax and the efficient level of emissions. [2 points] b. Explain why the efficient emissions tax is lower than the value that equates Aggregate Marginal Damage to Aggregate Marginal Abatement Cost plus Marginal Enforcement Costs. [2 points]See Answer**Q7:**7) The graph below is of a single source of pollution that operates under a transferable discharge permit policy. The market price of permits is p', which the firm takes as fixed. The firm is given (for free) either q° or q¹ permits initially. $ p MAC qº q¹ Emissio ns Permits a. What is the efficient level of emissions for a firm, given p* price of permits? Indicate it in the graph. [1 point] b. Use the graph to help explain why the initial allocation of permits does not affect how many permits the firm chooses to hold after trading is complete. [2 points]See Answer**Q8:**8) The graph below is of aggregate marginal damage and aggregate marginal abatement costs associated with some pollutant. Suppose a regulator wishes to control emissions with a competitive transferable emissions permit policy. p* Aggregate Marginal Abatement Costs d C Q*=E* b a EU Aggregate Marginal Damage Aggregate Emissions a. Identify the efficient supply of emissions permits. What will be the price of permits if sources trade them competitively? [1 point] b. Identify the reduction in aggregate damage from the efficient policy. [1 point] c. Identify the aggregate abatement cost of the efficient policy. [1 point] d. Identify the aggregate value of all emission permits. Under what circumstances does this value accrue to the pollution sources? Under what circumstances does this value accrue to theSee Answer**Q9:**UMass RESEC 262 Summer Problem 9) Think about the environmental issue you have been writing about: [8 points] a. Can you implement emissions taxes? b. Can you implement emissions permits? c. Describe how you would do this and which method you think would work better.See Answer**Q10:**3. Lucy and Melvin share an apartment. They spend part of their income on private goods such as food and clothing, which they consume separately, and part of their income on public goods such as the refrigerator, heating and rent, which they share. Lucy's utility function is 2XL+G and Melvin's utility function is XM6, where XL and XM are the sums of money spent on private goods for Lucy and Melvin, and G is the sum of money spent on public goods. Lucy and Melvin have a total of $8,000 a year to spend on private goods for each of them and on public goods. a. What is the absolute value of the marginal rate of substitution between private and public goods for Lucy? What is this value for Melvin? Write an equation to calculate the Pareto efficient quantity of public goods. b. Suppose Melvin and Lucy each spend $2,000 on private goods and the remaining $4,000 on public goods. Is this Pareto efficient? c. Give an example of another Pareto optimal outcome in which Melvin receives more than $2000 and Lucy receives less than $2000 for their consumption of private goods. Give an example of another Pareto optimum in which Lucy receives more than $2000./nd. The Pareto optima that makes Lucy better off and Melvin worse off will have (more, less, the same amount) of public goods than the Pareto optimum that treats them the same.See Answer**Q11:**4. This problem deals with a very practical question that concerns the inhabitants of this planet. The question is "in a democracy, when can we expect the majority of citizens to favor a government that provides private goods in a public way?". This problem also addresses issues of efficiency arising from the public provision of private goods. On planet Jumpo, there are two goods, aerobics lessons and bread. The citizens all have a Cobb-Douglas utility function of the form Ui(Ai, Pi) = A₁ P₁" where Ai and Pi are citizen i's consumption of aerobics and bread. Although tastes are all the same, there are two different income groups, the rich and the poor. Every rich person on Jumpo has an income of 100 fondas and every poor person has an income of 50 fondas (fonda is the currency of planet Jumpo). There are two million poor people and one million rich. Bread is sold in the usual way and costs 1 fonda. Aerobics lessons are provided by the state, in identical quantities for each person, and the price to the state for aerobics lessons is 2 fondas per/nlesson. The cost of state-provided lessons is paid for by taxes collected from citizens. The state has no other expenses, so the sum of the taxes must equal the total cost of the aerobics lessons. Jumpo is a democracy, and the number of aerobics lessons to be provided is decided by a vote of the citizens. a. Assume that the cost of state-provided aerobics lessons is paid for by requiring each person to pay an equal amount of taxes (per capita taxation). If each citizen receives 20 lessons, what will be the government's total expenditure on lessons? How many taxes will each citizen have to pay? If 20 lessons are given, how much will a rich person have left to eat bread after paying the tax? What about a poor person? b. Since aerobics lessons are provided publicly, everyone receives the same amount, and no one can have more lessons for that matter, each person faces the same optimization problem. Write down this optimization program and explain it. c. How many lessons will the rich want the state to provide? How many lessons will the poor want the state to provide? (Still assuming per capita taxation and identical quantities for each individual). d. If the result is determined by a majority vote, how many aerobics lessons will be provided?/nhow many aerobics lessons will be provided? How many loaves of bread will the rich get? How many loaves of bread will the poor get? e. Assume that aerobics lessons are "privatized" in such a way that no lessons are provided publicly and no taxes are collected. Each person can buy as many lessons as they like and as many loaves of bread as they like. Assume that the price of the bread remains 1 fonda per unit and the price of the lesson remains 2 fondas per unit. How many aerobics lessons will the rich receive? And the poor? How many loaves of bread will the rich buy? And the poor? f. Suppose that aerobics lessons remain publicly available, but are paid for by a tax proportional to income. Suppose that if A aerobics lessons are offered to every person in Jumpo, the tax for the rich will be 3A fondas and the tax for the poor will be 1.5A fondas. With these tax rates, how many aerobics lessons will the rich get? And the poor? How many aerobics lessons per head will the majority vote for? How many loaves of bread will the rich get? (Hint: remember to rewrite each group's budget constraint)./ng. Calculate the utility of a rich person and a poor person i. If we apply a per capita tax ii. In case of privatization iii. If a tax proportional to income is applied h. Compare these three systems according to the Pareto criterion. Is privatization Pareto superior to the per capita tax? Is the tax proportional to income superior to the per capita tax in the Pareto sense? Is privatization superior in a Pareto sense to a tax proportional to income? Explain your answers.See Answer**Q12:**1. ASSESSMENT BRIEFING In this individual assignment you are required to choose a city and identify and research two key sustainability issues, which are negatively impacting your city's sustainability performance. You will apply sustainability concepts; analyse and raise awareness of these problems and their causes. You will communicate your research effectively and succinctly by designing and producing an aesthetically pleasing poster. A successful poster will not only attract the viewer's attention, for it will also outline accurately and concisely the purpose, findings, and conclusions of your research. Your poster will be designed to include a balance of text, images, figures, and tables. The poster should include in-text citations or references to your research sources. Your submission should include a reference list of recent academic and non-academic sources, presented in the Cite them Right Harvard Referencing style. You must choose one city from the Arcadis Sustainable City Index 2022 Your selection should be based on the availability of the information and data needed to complete the module assessments. Make sure you get advice from your seminar leaders as you work through your assignment. 1.1. Word count and Submission method • 700 words maximum (excluding main title, subheadings, figures / tables and reference list) • Your poster will be uploaded to Turnitin as a single PDF (file must be less/n1.1. Word count and Submission method • 700 words maximum (excluding main title, subheadings, figures / tables and reference list) • Your poster will be uploaded to Turnitin as a single PDF (file must be less than 100 MB) • Document Name: 5BUSS015W CW1 o Please DO NOT include your name or student number with in the file name or anywhere within your submission as marking is anonymous. 1.2. Assessment format and design: • Poster created in Power Point, Canva, Adobe Express, (click on 'Log in with school account' (use your UoW email address without 'MY'. Example: w1234567@westminster.ac.uk), MS Word or other software. • Reference list on a separate page. • Style: 2See Answer**Q13:**200 words, 7th EDITION APA CITATION FORMAT WITH IN TEXT CITATIONS -In today's interconnected world, global business practices have a significant impact on social and economic conditions worldwide. Developing countries often face numerous challenges in their societies, including issues related to hygiene, health, climate change, and environmental degradation. Previously, foreign direct investment (FDI) was viewed as a beneficial strategy for developing countries. However, there has been a paradigm shift that emphasizes the importance of ethical and moral considerations in global business practices. 1. Do developed countries have any responsibility towards developing countries? Support your perspective with logic and citations from authoritative sources. 2. Considering the climate change crisis and the role of businesses in fueling this crisis, how would you relate environmental factors with ethical corporate social responsibility? Surbhi, S. (2020, April 17). Difference between developed countries and developing countries. Key Differences. Malamud, V., & Rotenberg, Y. (2016). International business for the entrepreneur. D. Allen (Ed.). Hong Kong Metropolitan University. licensed under CC 4.0 This book is an excellent open-source document on corporate social responsibility in business, defining its role in sustainable development in today's global economy. Read section 14.9, *Corporate Social Responsibility and sustainable development in the global environment from Chapter 14, International business for the entrepreneurSee Answer**Q14:**Write a critique of this statement: "Thank goodness we have so many government regulations and regulatory agencies! They keep Big Business in check." Your written critique can factor in both positive and negative points. Keep your statements apolitical and only aimed at the economic consequences. In 150 wordsSee Answer**Q15:**Next file have the areas names in Dubai UAE. You need to find construction techniques to cope with sea level rise for these areas and each area is categorized (residential / commercial/recreation). There is one more file as an examples and ideas of the techniques required (that file is just for an idea do not use the same thing). You need to provide advantages & disadvantages of each technique and real life examples (including the country that used the technique), With in text citations & references. Make sure to connect the techniques using these areas in Dubai And For the advantages & disadvantages you need to put like table & also the real life examples in a table, you can find pic of that in reference section. But the techniques should be applicable in Dubai (Gulf region) and for the chosen area like if there is technique for example can be used in India but not in Dubai we cannot choose it? So the techniques should be applicable and can be managed in that area and make sure to add the images of the techniques.See Answer**Q16:**Climate Change Economics Lab Assignment 1 UC Berkeley | Summer 2024 The model that you have to build this week has two components: a climate dynamics model (Section 1) and a simple carbon cycle model (Section 2). Section 1 Overview This section has two parts: 1) you will build a very simple physical climate model in Excel and 2) analyze some very simple CO2 concentration scenarios with that model. 1.1: Modeling Overview The input (or forcing) to the climate dynamics model is yearly atmospheric CO2 concentrations, measured in ppm. The output of the climate dynamics model is the yearly average temperature increase over pre-industrial temperatures in °C. The forcing to the climate dynamics model is provided to you in the Excel file "CCE Assignment 1 - Forcings.xlsx". Your model will run in yearly time steps, and will start in the year 2010 and run to the year 2300, Climate Dynamics Model The climate dynamics model you will build has two parts: the first part computes how much extra energy is warming the atmosphere due to climate change and what the long term temperature effect of that extra energy would be. The second part computes the predicted yearly global average temperature increase over time. The amount of extra energy caused by rising CO2 concentrations is called the radiative forcing and is measured in W/m2. The equation to compute this variable is (1) rfcº2= 5.35ln- Cpre Ct rf.CO2 is the radiative forcing at time t caused by CO2 in W/m2. Ct is the atmospheric CO2 concentration at point t in ppm, as provided in the forcing file. Cpre is the pre-industrial level of 1 atmospheric CO2 concentrations, and you should use 275 ppm for this. In(x) is the natural logarithm, the Excel function name for it is "=LN(x)". Other greenhouse gases also contribute to global warming, and they further increase radiative forcing. You are not going to model the effect of these other greenhouse gases explicitly for this exercise, but our model should nevertheless account for them. Consequently, we will integrate the forcing caused by other greenhouse gases as a forcing that is supplied to you as part of this exercise in the file "CCE Assignment 1 - Forcings.xlsx". For the remainder of this assignment, I will refer to the radiative forcing of other greenhouse gases as r ft fother The total effect of global warming, that is all greenhouse gases, is computed as rft = rft f.C02 +rfother (2) for time t. The next step in the model is to compute the warming that would occur if a given level of radiative forcing would be sustained for a very long time. The equation for that is (3) Te = 1 x rft Here Te is the increase in global average surface temperature over pre-industrial levels if the radiative forcing of rft were to be held constant for a very long time. 1 is called the climate sensitivity and you should set it to 0.8 for this exercise. The final step is to compute the actual temperature for each time step. We will use a very simple delay formulation. For each time step we will first compute the difference between the temperature in the previous year and the temperature that the system would reach if radiative forcing were to be held constant for a very long time (Te - Tt-1). We then assume that the actual temperature will warm by a very small fraction of this computed difference. The equation for this process is (4) Tt =Tt-1 + u(Te -Tt-1) Tt is the quantity we are really interested in, the global average temperature increase above pre- industrial times in °C at time t. u is the parameter that controls the delay of the warming, and you should set it equal to -. As this equation relies on the temperature in the previous time period we cannot use it to compute Tt for the first time period of our model. For the first time period you should set T2010 to 0.8, roughly today's observed warming over pre-industrial temperatures in °C. 1.2: Policy Analysis Question 1a: What happens to projected temperature if CO2 concentrations were held constant at 2010 levels in the model? You should copy the Excel sheet that contains your model for this exercise. The new sheet should have the model output with constant concentrations. 2 Question 1b: Create two graphs, one for CO2 concentrations and one for temperature. The x- axis should have years on it for both graphs. Then plot each of the two cases analyzed (base case and constant concentrations) as one line. You should create a new empty sheet in Excel, and then reference the values in all the other sheets as data for your chart. Section 2 Overview This section has two parts: 1) you will add a very simple carbon cycle model to Section 1; 2) analyze some very simple CO2 emission scenarios with that new model. 2.2: Modeling Overview You will now build a carbon cycle model and couple it with the climate dynamics model you built in Section 1. The input (or forcing) to the carbon cycle model are yearly emissions of CO2, measured in Mt C (megatonne carbon = 1 million tonne carbon). The output of the carbon cycle model is atmospheric concentrations of CO2, measured in ppm (parts per million). The two components are coupled via the atmospheric concentration of CO2, i.e. the output of the carbon cycle model is an input to the climate dynamics model. The forcing to the carbon cycle model (CO2 emissions) is provided to you in the Excel file "CCE - Assignment 1 Forcings.xlsx". Carbon Cycle model The carbon cycle model you will implement is a simple five-box model. The five boxes don't correspond to anything in the physical world; they are purely an abstraction that as a whole mimics the results from much more complicated models. In this model, all atmospheric CO2 concentrations live in one of five boxes. If one wants to compute the total atmospheric CO2 concentration at a point in time, one simply adds the amount of CO2 in each of the five boxes up. Over time, CO2 disappears from each of these boxes, at different rates for each individual box. On the other hand, new anthropogenic CO2 emissions are added each year into the atmosphere. In the five-box model these yearly influxes of new CO2 into the atmosphere are distributed by fixed shares into the five boxes: 13% percent go into the first box, 20% into the second, 32% into the third, 25% into the fourth and the remaining 10% into the fifth box. There are consequently five variables that represent the five boxes and each of these variables takes on a different value in each year. The equation that is used to compute the amount of CO2 in box i (which takes values from 1 to 5) at time t (which takes on value from 2010 to 2300) is: (5) Boxi,t = ai X Boxi,t-1 + YißEt 3 Boxit is the amount of CO2 in box i at time t, measured in ppm. ai is the share of CO2 in box i that stays in the atmosphere until the next time period (so 1 - ai is the share of CO2 that disappears each year from box i). Yi is the share of emissions that goes into box i. ß is a unit conversion factor: CO2 emissions in our model are measured in Mt C, but atmospheric CO2 concentrations are measured in ppm; ß converts from the unit Mt C to CO2 ppm. Et are world total emissions of CO2 in year t, measured in Mt C. You cannot use this equation to compute the values for each box in the first time period, i.e. in the year 2010: the equation for that year would rely on the values for this box in the previous year, but our model only starts in 2010. Therefore, for the first year only, you should not use equation (5) but instead use initial values for each of the five boxes that are provided below as Boxi,2010- The values for the forcing Et are provided to you as an Excel file. You should use the following values for ai, Yi, Boxi,2010 and ß: @1 =1 Y1 = 0.13 Box1,2010 = 301.099 ₿ = 0.00047 a2 = exp - 363 1 Y2 = 0.2 Box2,2010 = 30.098 a3 = exp - 74 1 Y3 = 0.32 BOX3,2010 = 34.878 1 a4 = exp - 17 14 = 0.25 Box4,2010 = 12.357 112 Y5 = 0.1 BOX5,2010 = 0.897 The values for some of the ai are little equations themselves, you can enter them directly in Excel as a formula, e.g. for a2 you would enter "=EXP(-1/363)" as the Excel formula. The final step in the carbon cycle model is to compute atmospheric CO2 concentrations at each point in time: (6) Ct = >Boxit = Box1,t + Box2,t + Box3,t + Box4,t + Box5,t i=1 5 Ct is the atmospheric concentration of CO2 at time t, it is simply the sum of the five boxes at that time. Coupling To couple the climate dynamics model with the carbon cycle model you need to make a change to the climate dynamics model you built in Section 1: you should replace the values in the row 4 that had the CO2 concentration forcing in the climate dynamics model with a formula that references the output from the carbon cycle model. 2.2: Policy Analysis Question 2a: What happens to projected temperature if CO2 emissions were held constant at 2010 levels in the model? You should copy the Excel sheet that contains your model for this exercise. The new sheet should have the model output with constant emissions. Question 2b: By how much % would we need to reduce emissions in each year to keep global warming below 2° over the next 300 years? First, copy the model sheet and do all your analysis in the new sheet. The easiest approach is to modify the line that has emissions in such a way that starting with the second time step you use an equation to compute emissions. Assuming that the cell for emissions in the year 2011 is C24, the Excel formula might look like "=B23*(1-$B$20)". In this case the cell B20 would have the percent reduction in emission per year in it and you could quickly change the emissions profile by changing the value in cell B20. Finally, you might want to have one cell that displays the maximum temperature increase over the model time horizon. Assuming the predicted temperatures are in cells B48 to KF48, you might add a cell that has the equation "=MAX(B48:KF48)" in it to help you. Question 2c: If emissions stay as they are specified in base case until the year 2049, and are then reduced by a fixed percent each year, how much would they have to be reduced in percent in each year to keep global warming below 2° over the next 300 years? Again, copy the model sheet and do your analysis on the new sheet. The steps for this exercise are similar to the steps for the previous question. Question 2d: Create three graphs, one for CO2 emissions, one for CO2 concentrations and one for temperature. The x-axis should have years on it for all three graphs. Then plot each of the four cases analyzed (base case, constant emissions, reduction in emissions starting now, reduction in emissions starting in 2050) as one line. You should create a new empty sheet in Excel, and then reference the values in all the other sheets as data for your chart. 5See Answer

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