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  • Q1:Assessed assignment: 1. Select a global chef currently active in humanitarian, social, cultural, or sustainability activities. Please consider chefs working from your birth/home/ancester countries (places you have a connection with in addition to Canada) as well. Who are they? Where are they from? Where do they work? What do they do in activism? 2. Explore the work they do in their chosen activity and do an overview of their philosophy that drives/motivates them in that work. 3. Outline a culinary philosophy and professional mission statement of your own. Lay some ground work first by asking a few questions. a. What issues in the culinary world inspire you to become active? Narrow it down to one issue. b. How can you see yourself becoming active in that issue? c. Are there any pathways open for you to become an active participant? If not, what do you think can be done that would lead to develop more activity from chefs, like yourself, in the future. d. Create your own philosophy and mission statement using the above ground work.See Answer
  • Q2: 3 Why We Became Religious and The Evolution of the Spirit World Marvin Harris The following selection by anthropologist Marvin Harris originally appeared as two separate essays, one entitled "Why We Became Religious," the other "The Evolution of the Spirit World." In the first essay, Harris comments on the fascinating possibility of religion among nonhuman species. He also discusses the concept of mana (an inherent force or power), noting that, although the concepts of superstition, luck, and charisma in Western cultures closely resemble mana, they are not really religious concepts. Rather, according to Harris, the basis of all religious thought is animism, the universal belief that we humans share the world with various extracorporeal, mostly invisible beings. Harris closes the first essay with some thoughts on the concept of an inner being- a soul-pointing out that in many cultures people believe a person may have more than one. In "The Evolution of the Spirit World," Harris advances the notion that spiritual beings found in modern religions are also found in the religions of prestate societies. Thus, he briefly examines religious thought and behavior pertaining to ancestor worship at varying levels of societal complex- ity, starting with band-and-village societies, the earliest of human cultures. Next, Harris notes the importance of recently deceased relatives in the religions of more complexly developed societies, such as those based on gardening and fishing. Chiefdoms represent an even higher level of devel- opment, one in which greater specialization arose, including a religious practitioner who paid special attention to the chief's ancestors. Finally, Harris observes that, with the development of early states and empires, dead ancestors assumed a place of great prominence alongside the gods. Marvin Harris (1927-2001) was a tremendous popularizer of anthropology, thanks to the accessible writing style of his works for students and the general public. He helped develop the theoretical perspective known as cultural materialism, often emphasizing the relationship between culture and ecology. Human social life cannot be understood apart from the deeply held beliefs and values that in the short Pages 397-407 from OUR KIND by Marvin Harris. Copyright 1989 by Marvin Harris. Reprinted by permission of HarperCollins Publishers. 25 run, at least, motivate and mobilize our transactions with each other and the world of nature. So let me... confront certain questions concerning our kind's reli- gious beliefs and behavior. First, are there any precedents for religion in non- human species? The answer is yes, only if one accepts 26 THE ANTHROPOLOGICAL STUDY OF RELIGION a definition of religion broad enough to include "su- perstitious" responses. Behavioral psychologists have long been familiar with the fact that animals can acquire responses that are falsely associated with re- wards. For example, a pigeon is placed in a cage into which food pellets are dropped by a mechanical feeder at irregular intervals. If the reward is deliv- ered by chance while the bird is scratching, it begins to scratch faster. If the reward is delivered while a bird happens to be flapping its wings, it keeps flap- ping them as if wing-flapping controls the feeder. Among humans, one can find analogous supersti- tions in the little rituals that baseball players engage their caps, in as they come up to bat, such as touching spitting, or rubbing their hands. None of this has any real connection with getting a hit, although constant repetition assures that every time batters get hits, they have performed the ritual. Some minor phobic behavior among humans also might be attributed to associations based on coincidental rather than contin- gent circumstances. I know a heart surgeon who tol- erates only popular music piped into his operating room ever since he lost a patient while classical com- positions were being played. Superstition raises the issue of causality. Just how do the activities and objects that are connected in su- perstitious beliefs influence one another? A reason- able, if evasive, answer is to say that the causal activity or object has an inherent force or power to achieve the observed effects. Abstracted and gener- alized, this inherent force or power can provide the explanation for many extraordinary events and for success or failure in life's endeavors. In Melanesia, people call it mana. Fishhooks that catch big fish, tools that make intricate carvings, canoes that sail safely through storms, or warriors who kill many en- emies, all have mana in concentrated quantities. In Western cultures, the concepts of luck and charisma closely resemble the idea of mana. A horseshoe pos- sesses a concentrated power that brings good luck. A charismatic leader is one who is suffused with great powers of persuasion. But are superstitions, mana, luck, and charisma religious concepts? I think not. Because, if we define religion as a belief in any indwelling forces and pow- ers, we shall soon find it difficult to separate religion from physics. After all, gravity and electricity are also unseen forces that are associated with observable ef- fects. While it is true that physicists know much more about gravity than about mana, they cannot claim to have a complete understanding of how gravity achieves its results. At the same time, couldn't one mana, luck, and charisma argue that superstitions, are also merely theories of causality involving physi- happen to cal forces and powers about which we have incomplete understanding as vet? True, more scientific testing has gone into the study of gravity than into the study of mana, but the degree of scientific testing to which a theory has been subjected cannot make the difference between whether it is a religious or a scientific belief. If it did, then every untested or inadequately tested theory in science would be a religious belief (as well as every scientific theory that has been shown to be false dur- ing the time when scientists believed it to be true!). Some astronomers theorize that at the center of each galaxy there is a black hole. Shall we say that this is a religious belief because other astronomers reject such a theory or regard it as inadequately tested? It is not the quality of belief that distinguishes re- ligion from science. Rather, as Sir Edward Tylor was the first to propose, the basis of all that is distinctly religious in human thought is animism, the belief that humans share the world with a population of extraordinary, extracorporeal, and mostly invisible beings, ranging from souls and ghosts to saints and fairies, angels and cherubim, demons, jinni, devils, and gods. Wherever people believe in the existence of one or more of these beings, that is where religion exists. Tylor claimed that animistic beliefs were to be found in every society, and a century of ethnological re- search has yet to turn up a single exception. The most problematic case is that of Buddhism, which Tylor's critics portrayed as a world religion that lacked belief in gods or souls. But ordinary believers outside of Buddhist monasteries never accepted the atheistic implications of Gautama's teachings. Main- stream Buddhism, even in the monasteries, quickly envisioned the Buddha as a supreme deity who had been successively reincarnated and who held sway over a pantheon of lower gods and demons. And it was as fully animistic creeds that the several variet- ies of Buddhism spread from India to Tibet, South- east Asia, China, and Japan. Why is animism universal? Tylor pondered the question at length. He reasoned that if a belief re- curred again and again in virtually all times and HARRIS WHY WE BECAME RELIGIOUS AND THE EVOLUTION OF THE SPIRIT WORLD 27 places, it could not be a product of mere fantasy. Rather, it must have grounding in evidence and in experiences that were equally recurrent and univer- sal. What were these experiences? Tylor pointed to dreams, trances, visions, shadows, reflections, and death. During dreams, the body stays in bed; yet an- other part of us gets up, talks to people, and travels to distant lands. Trances and drug-induced visions also bring vivid evidence of another self, distinct and separate from one's body. Shadows and mirror im- ages reflected in still water point to the same conclu- sion, even in the full light of normal wakefulness. The concept of an inner being-a soul-makes sense of all this. It is the soul that wanders off when we sleep, that lies in the shadows, and that peers back at us from the surface of the pond. Most of all, the soul explains the mystery of death: a lifeless body is a body permanently deprived of its soul. Incidentally, there is nothing in the concept of soul per se that constrains us to believe each person has only one. The ancient Egyptians had two, and so do many West African societies in which both patri- lineal and matrilineal ancestors determine an indi- vidual's identity. The Jívaro of Ecuador have three souls. The first soul-the mekas-gives life to the body. The second soul-the arutam-has to be cap- tured through a drug-induced visionary experience at a sacred waterfall. It confers bravery and immu- nity in battle to the possessor. The third soul-the musiak-forms inside the head of a dying warrior and attempts to avenge his death. The Dahomey say that women have three souls; men have four. Both sexes have an ancestor soul, a personal soul, and a mawn soul. The ancestor soul gives protection dur- ing life, the personal soul is accountable for what people do with their lives, the mawn soul is a bit of the creator god, Mawn, that supplies divine guid- ance. The exclusively male fourth soul guides men to positions of leadership in their households and lin- eages. But the record for plural souls seems to belong to the Fang of Gabon. They have seven: a sound in- side the brain, a heart soul, a name soul, a life force soul, a body soul, a shadow soul, and a ghost soul. Why do Westerners have only one soul? I cannot answer that. Perhaps the question is unanswerable. I accept the possibility that many details of religious beliefs and practices may arise from historically spe- cific events and dividual choices made only once and only in one culture and that have no discernible cost-benefit advantages or disadvantages. While a belief in souls does conform to the general principles of cultural selection, belief in one rather than two or more souls may not be comprehensible in terms of such principles. But let us not be too eager to declare any puzzling feature of human life forever beyond the pale of practical reason. For has it not been our experience that more research often leads to answers that were once thought unattainable? The Evolution of the Spirit World All varieties of spirit beings found in modern reli- gions have their analogues or exact prototypes in the religions of prestate societies. Changes in animistic beliefs since Neolithic times involve matters of em- phasis and elaboration. For example, band-and- village people widely believed in gods who lived on top of mountains or in the sky itself and who served as the models for later notions of supreme beings as well as other powerful sky gods. In Aboriginal Australia, the sky god created the earth and its natural features, showed humans how to hunt and make fire, gave people their social laws, and showed them how to make adults out of children by perform- ing rites of initiation. The names of their quasi- supreme beings-Baiame, Daramulum, Nurunderi- could not be uttered by the uninitiated. Similarly, the Selk'nam of Tierra del Fuego believed in "the one who is up there." The Yaruro of Venezuela spoke of a "great mother" who created the world. The Maidu of California believed in a great "slayer in the sky." Among the Semang of Malaysia, Kedah created ev- erything, including the god who created the earth and humankind. The Andaman Islanders had Puluga whose house is the sky, and the Winnebago had "earthmaker." Although prestate peoples occasionally prayed to these great spirits or even visited them during trances, the focus of animistic beliefs generally lay elsewhere. In fact, most of the early creator gods ab- stained from contact with human beings. Having created the universe, they withdraw from worldly affairs and let other lesser deities, animistic beings, and humans work out their own destinies. Ritually, the most important category of animistic beings was the ancestors of the band, village, and clan or other kinship groups whose members believed they were bonded by common descent. 28 THE ANTHROPOLOGICAL STUDY OF RELIGION People in band-and-village societies tend to have short memories concerning specific individu- als who have died. Rather than honor the recent dead, or seek favors from them, egalitarian cultures often place a ban on the use of the dead person's name and try to banish or evade his or her ghost. Among the Washo, a native American foraging people who lived along the border of California and Nevada, souls of the dead were angry about being deprived of their bodies. They were danger- ous and had to be avoided. So the Washo burned the dead person's hut, clothing, and other personal property and stealthily moved their camp to a place where they hoped the dead person's soul could not find them. The Dusun of North Borneo curse a dead person's soul and warn it to stay away from the village. Reluctantly, the soul gathers up belongings left at its grave site and sets off for the land of the dead. But this distrust of the recent dead does not ex- tend to the most ancient dead, not to the generality of ancestor spirits. In keeping with the ideology of descent, band-and-village people often memorial- ize and propitiate their communal ancestral spirits. Much of what is known as totemism is a form of diffuse ancestor worship. Taking the name of an animal such as kangaroo or beaver or a natural phe- nomenon such as clouds or rain in conformity with prevailing rules of descent, people express a com- munal obligation to the founders of their kinship group. Often this obligation includes rituals in- tended to nourish, protect, or assure the increase of the animal and natural totems and with it the health and well-being of their human counterparts. Ab- original Australians, for example, believed that they were descended from animal ancestors who traveled around the country during the dream-time at the beginning of the world, leaving mementos of their journey strewn about before turning into peo- ple. Annually, the descendants of a particular to- temic ancestor retraced the dream-time journey. As they walked from spot to spot, they sang, danced, and examined sacred stones, stored in secret hiding places along the path taken by the first kangaroo or the first witchetty grub. Returning to camp, they decorated themselves in the likeness of their totem and imitated its behavior. The Arunta witchetty- grub men, for instance, decorated themselves with strings, nose bones, rattails, and feathers, painted their bodies with the sacred design of the witchetty grub, and constructed a brush hut in the shape of the witchetty-grub chrysalis. They entered the hut of the journey they had made. Then the and sang head men came shuffling and gliding out, followed by all the rest, in imitation of adult witchetty grubs undifferentiated com- munity of ancestral spirits keep a close watch on their descendants, ready to punish them if they commit incest or if they break the taboos against eat- ing certain foods. Important endeavors-hunting, gardening, pregnancy, warfare-need the blessings of a group's ancestors to be successful, and such blessings are usually obtained by holding feasts in the ancestors' honor according to the principle that a well-fed ancestor is a well-intentioned ancestor. Throughout highland New Guinea, for example, people believe that the ancestral spirits enjoy eat- ing pork as much as living persons enjoy eating it. To please the ancestors, people slaughter whole herds of pigs before going to war or when celebrat- ing important events in an individual's life such as marriage and death. But in keeping with a big-man redistributive level of political organization, no one claims that his or her ancestors merit special emerging from a chrysalis. In most village societies an treatment. Under conditions of increasing population, greater wealth to be inherited, and intrasocietal com- petition between different kin groups, people tend to pay more attention to specific and recently deceased relatives in order to validate claims to the inheri- tance of land and other resources. The Dobuans, South Pacific yam gardeners and fishermen of the Admiralty Islands, have what seems to be an incipi- ent phase of a particularized ancestor religion. When the leader of a Dobuan household died, his children cleaned his skull, hung it from the rafters of their house, and provided it with food and drink. Addressing it as "Sir Ghost," they solicited protec- tion against disease and misfortune, and through oracles, asked him for advice. If Sir Ghost did not cooperate, his heirs threatened to get rid of him. Ac- tually, Sir Ghost could never win. The death of his children finally proved that he was no longer of any use. So when the grandchildren took charge, they threw Sir Ghost into the lagoon, substituting their own father's skull as the symbol of the household's new spiritual patron. HARRIS WHY WE BECAME RELIGIOUS AND THE EVOLUTION OF THE SPIRIT WORLD | With the development of chietdoms, ruling clites employed specialists whose job was to memorize the names of the chief's ancestors. To make sure that the remains of these dignitaries did not get thrown away like Sir Ghost's skull, paramount chiets built elabo- nate tombs that preserved links between generations in a tangible form. Finally, with the emergence of states and empires, as the rulers' souls rose to take their places in the firmament alongside the high gods, their mummified mortal remains, surrounded by exquisite furniture, rare jewels, gold-encrusted chariots and other preciosities, were interred in gi- gantic crypts and pyramids that only a true god could have built. Study Question What are some of the ways in which beliefs in souls, gods, and other spiritual beings vary among societies? Related Readings and Media Bellah, Robert N. 2011 Religion in Human Evolution: From the Paleolithic to the Axial Age. Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap/Harvard University Press. Intricate coverage of the development of religious phenomena among humans, including attention to the Middle East, Greece, China, and India as well as prehistory. By a preeminent sociologist. www.beliefnet.com/Faiths/2005/04/Multifaith- Round-Up-Views-Of-The-Soul.aspx?p=1 Collection of comments about the concept of soul, fror leaders of various religions in the United States, from the popular website beliefnet.com. http://ngm.nationalgeographic.com/2010/01/ chinese-afterlife/hessler-text National Geographic magazine article on ancestor wor ship in ancient China, including a gallery of photos./n RLGN 1430 Food: Religious Concepts and Practices Winter 2022 Responses (Three responses throughout the semester, each worth 5%) Responses are journal-style paragraph postings (100 to 150 words) to the class website (UMLearn), written in your own words, and presenting your ideas, thoughts, and perspectives. You are required to submit three responses during the semester. Our course outline indicates when responses are due. Aim to get your responses ready to submit to the drop box for the response on the due date indicated in the course outline. If you need an extra day or two to prepare your response, please let me know. The objective is to make sure that everyone completes the total number of responses. NOTE: Choose one reading from the list of course readings from the previous weeks. Our course outline is divided into modules, and by week. Therefore, you will have a choice of the course readings covered already in class. DUE DATE: Response One: January 24 READINGS FOR RESPONSE ONE Note: below are some suggested themes Barthes-food consumption, crisp or crispy, sugar, coffee break, why do we make and prepare to eat certain foods on certain occasions. Jones- rituals of food, gathering together and eating food, symbolism of home cooked food, food and memory Visser- making an omelette Harris- history of food and human societies, food consumption Levi Strauss- food, food symbolism, tastes, cooking and preparing food, high cuisines and food experts POSSIBLE TOPICS Note: below are some suggested topics related to course resources Winnipeg "food deserts" Going to the grocery store What food item do you always have in your kitchen? Making coffee or making tea? Rubric for Grading This assignment will not be graded primarily in terms of written presentation. I will be looking for three things when I assign grades: 1- Following Instructions: Did you complete the assignment according to the instructions above? (1 point) 2- Clarity: Do you explain yourself in a way that is clear, concise, and well-organized? Though this is an informal assignment, and you will not be graded on grammar and written presentation, your writing should be clear enough that someone who has never taken a course in Religious Studies could read it and understand it (and perhaps even learn something from it!). (2 points) 3- Careful, Contemplative Reasoning: It should be evident that you have actually thought carefully about the reading that you are responding to, and that you have put some time and consideration into your response. In short, this is not meant to be the sort of assignment that can be completed successfully 10 minutes before class. (2 points) 2See Answer
  • Q3: Soups-n-Salads is a sizeable buffet restaurant chain with 57 locations in the Pacific Northwest, offering its customers a choice of 5 different soups and 12 gourmet salads. As part of a continuous effort to present its customers with food items that are fresh, delicious, and safe, Soups-n-Salads follows rigorous quality control procedures developed by their inhouse Six Sigma team. Part of this effort addresses the problem of temperature management for food items. Danger Zone. Bacterial growth on food is a serious public health hazard. The U.S. Department of Agriculture estimates that as many as 9,000 deaths and 6.5 to 33 million illnesses yearly are directly linked to foodborne bacteria and other microorganisms. To survive and reproduce, bacteria need time, moisture, and a favorable temperature. One of the most critical factors for the successful prevention of bacterial growth is storing food at the right temperature. Long term practice and lab experiments have shown that bacteria grow and multiply faster in temperatures in the 40 – 140 °F range (5 – 60 °C). This range is known as the Danger Zone. Safe food storage practices and regulations require from grocery stores and restaurants to take all the necessary steps to avoid a prolonged exposure of food in the danger zone. Generally, cold temperatures (below 40 °F) will significantly slow down bacterial growth, and hot temperatures (above 140 °F) will destroy most of the bacteria. Bacteria do not affect the taste, smell, or appearance of a food. Therefore, if a food has been left in the danger zone for more than 2 hours should be discarded, even if it smells or looks good. Soups and Salads. Safe storage and display of salads at a buffet restaurant involves keeping the salads in containers that will protect them from possible exposure to insects or rodents, avoiding cross-contamination from other food, proper refrigeration, isolation from cleaning agents, practicing stock rotation (i.e., consuming the older stock first), and other practices. Temperature management for salads is relatively simple, due to the fact that most salad items remain at a low temperature until they are consumed or disposed of. Keeping soups at a safe temperature can be more challenging, since they need to be heated when they are cooked, chilled when they are stored, and reheated when they are about to be consumed by the customers. Soups pass through the danger zone twice, and this transition needs to be as fast as possible, to prevent bacteria from having the time or the opportunity to grow. The Process Flow Diagram shown in Exhibit 1 illustrates the temperature management procedures for soups at Soups-n-Salads restaurant. Statistical Quality Control. Soup temperature at each Soups-n-Salads restaurant is monitored every half hour during the period 11:30am - 10pm, for a total of 22 measurements per day. Two restaurant employees per day share two daily shifts recording the temperatures of 12 different soup containers (bain-maries). A temperature log of the most recent 30 days is maintained, as required by the Health Department. An effort is made to keep the soup temperature above 150 °F, just to be on the safe side. Out of the 12 soups measured every half-hour, four are randomly chosen to be included in a control chart showing the average soup temperature of the sampled bain-maries. Exhibit 2 shows the first few observations of sampled temperatures corresponding to two consecutive days. Occasionally all four soups in the sample have temperatures that are unusually low and some other times just one or two temperatures are low and the rest are OK. Depending on whether a sample has similar low temperatures or just large differences among the temperatures it consists of, the managers of Soups-n-Salads may be able to get a head start in trying to figure out a possible cause. For example, if the temperature in all soups is dropping it might be an indication that the employee responsible for stirring the soups was not making the rounds, whereas if only one has a low temperature it might relate to a machinery malfunction. Exhibit 3 shows a cause-and-effect (fishbone) diagram, created in order to transcribe a number of possible causes for a low soup temperature, as they have been known to the managers through long experience. Boiling hot hot cold Cook soup. Temperature at boiling is slightly above 212 °F Divide soup into shallow containers for rapid cooling. Place soup in plastic bags and Refrigerate within 2 hours Danger Zone, Temperature 45 Heat soup fast. Raise temperature to 160 °F 4 EXHIBIT 1: Process Flow Diagram showing the temperature management procedures for soups at Soups-n-Salads Restaurant. 5 Preheat the bain- marie before use Keep the soup hot in a bain-marie. Operate at the highest setting. Stir soup frequently. Take temperature every half hour. Maintain above 140 °F. Keep soup in the bain-marie for a max of 1 hour, then dispose Store in refrigerator and use within 4 days. Keep temperature below 40 °F Sample temp1 temp2 temp3 temp4 1 149.8 148.9 150.2 149.3 2 154.1 150.4 153.2 155.8 3 151.2 155.4 152.2 153.9 154.1 151.9 153.9 153.3 153.1 157 156.7 153.2 EXHIBIT 2: Sampled temperatures for two consecutive days (first few observations) People Employees don't care Soup is not stirred often Power outage Environment Equipment Thermometer not measuring properly Instruments are old and need replacement Original heating not high enough Bain-marie preheating not high enough Procedures EXHIBIT 3: Cause-and-effect (fishbone) diagram. Bain-marie not working properly Poor maintenance Soup temperature not high enough Refrigerator temperature too low Using statistical software, the Six Sigma team produced an R chart and an x-bar chart for the soup temperature. Examination of the R chart showed that the process was out of control with respect to the variability on the 27th sample. At that time, one of the four sampled soups was getting much colder than the other three. Later, the Six Sigma team produced a new R chart, along with a corresponding x-bar chart, both shown in Exhibit 4. Range X-bar 2 10 8 O 157 155 153 151 149 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 MA 0 Range Chart for temp 0 10 10 d₂ 1.128 1.693 2.059 2.326 2.534 2.704 2.847 20 2.970 3.078 x Subgroup 20 X-bar Chart for temp 30 d3 .853 Subgroup .888 .880 .864 .848 .833 .820 .808 .797 As 30 EXHIBIT 4: R chart and X-bar chart (second round of control charts). 40 AMA D3 40 0 0 0 0 .076 .136 50 .184 .223 UCL = CTR= 4.12 LCL = 50 D₂ 3.267 2.574 2.282 2.114 2.004 1.924 1.864 1.816 1.777 UCL = CTR= 153.78 LCL =See Answer
  • Q4:22:08 × > Content bb-gbc.blackboard.com = X THEORY OF FOOD II CRN-12... Assignments أ%74 | اR . This can be done as a power point submission or a standard paper format. The following must be included in your submission: 1. Cover page with your name, student number, course and course Instructor. 2. References in correct APA citation format 3. A minimum of 5 sources Maximum 500 words. ASSIGNMENT NOTES: Your assignments are detailed in your course outline, in in your blackboard calendar and here on the assignment Assignments are due before the submission date and time. page. At George Brown we want you to succeed. It is up to you to stay on top of your work requirements and submissions. Your due dates and times are clearly stated here. ||| : ? If you submit within 24 hours after the que O </n22:08 × > Content bb-gbc.blackboard.com = X THEORY OF FOOD II CRN-12... Assignments أ%74 | اR . Assessed assignment: 1. Select a global chef currently active in humanitarian, social, cultural, or sustainability activities. Please consider chefs working from your birth/home/ancester countries (places you have a connection with in addition to Canada) as well. Who are they? Where are they from? Where do they work? What do they do in activism? 2. Explore the work they do in their chosen activity and do an overview of their philosophy that drives/motivates them in that work. 3. Outline a culinary philosophy and professional mission statement of your own. Lay some ground work first bý asking a few questions. a. What issues in the culinary world inspire you to become active? Narrow it down to one issue. b. How can you see yourself becoming active in that issue? ||| c. Are there any pathways open for you to become an active participant? If not, what do you think can be done that would lead to develop more activity from chefs, like yourself, in the future. d. Create your own philosophy and mission statement using the above ground work. ? O : <See Answer
  • Q5:PART 1 +Food Item #1: Featuring Health Claims Product: What specific food item have you selected? Packaging or advertisement:See Answer
  • Q6:PART 2 +Food Item #2: Featuring Nutrient Content Claims But NO Health ClaimsSee Answer
  • Q7:PART 3: Comparison and Reflection Comparision - Appeal: Which product do you think had the more appealing packaging or advertisements? Why?See Answer
  • Q8:4.8 A sample of soil was compacted into a 1/30 ft³ laboratory mold. The weight of the compacted soil was 4.1 lb and its moisture content 13.1%. Using a specific gravity of solids of 2.70, compute the unit weight, dry unit weight and degree of saturation of this compacted soil. This compacted soil sample was then submerged in water. After 2 weeks, it was found that the sample had swelled and that its total volume had increased by 5%. Compute the new unit weight and moisture content of the soil sample after 2 weeks of submersion in water.See Answer
  • Q9:4.13 An undisturbed cylindrical soil sample is 60 mm in diameter and 152 mm long. It has a mass of 816 g. After finding the mass of the entire sample, a small portion was removed and a moisture content test was performed on it. The results of this test on the subsample were: Mass of can = 22.01 g Mass of can + moist soil = 124.97 g Mass of can + dry soil = 112.72 g Using G = 2.70, compute w, y, ya, e, and S.See Answer
  • Q10:4.15 A strata of clean, light-colored quartz sand located below the groundwater table has a moisture content of 25.6%. The minimum and maximum void ratios of this soil are 0.380 and 1.109, respectively. Select an appropriate value of G, for this soil, compute its relative density, and determine its consistency using Table 4.4.See Answer
  • Q11:4.36 A sand with G₁ = 2.66 and e=0.60 is completely dry. It then becomes wetted by a ris- ing groundwater table. Compute the unit weight (lb/ft3 or kN/m³) under the following conditions: (a) When the sand is completely dry. (b) When the sand is 40% saturated (S = 40%). (c) When the sand is completely saturated.See Answer
  • Q12:1.) Classify the soil behavior types (SBT) for the entire depth log using the Cone Penetration Test (CPT) data. Turn in a depth log of your profile with each SBT type clearly delineated.See Answer
  • Q13:2.) Compute the N_60 values for Boring 13,14, and 15 for each of the standard penetration tests conducted (Geotech Report Below).See Answer
  • Q14: Questions: 1. The coefficient of uniformity Cu of a soil is 10 and its coefficient of curvature Cc is 0.90. You would classify the soil as: a. Even-graded b. Medium-graded c. Gap-graded 6. An oedometer sample had a final water content of 12.5 % and a specific gravity of 2.7. What was its final voids ratio? a. 0.338 b. 0.238 C. 1.338 100 9. In a falling head permeameter test the length of the sample is 120mm and its area is 4417.86 mm². The area of the standpipe is 132.73 mm². At the start of a test the water level in the standpipe was 410mm and fell to 185mm after 490s have elapsed. What is the permeability of the soil? a. 6.16*10-3 m/s b. 1.25*10-3 mm/s c. 5.85*10-3 mm/s ooo 16m 11. An embankment is to be constructed over a 2m thick sand layer, underlain by a 16m thick saturated soft clay layer, which is underlain by a sand layer. The embankment will trigger consolidation of the clay layer. For the clay cv-3.1 m²/year. How long will it take for 90% of the consolidation process to be completed? 0.848 d²=st== a. 19.8 years b. 70 years c. 17.5 years 3.1m 8 m 12.A uniformly distributed Toad of 100 kN/m² is applied on a clay layer. After one ū ₁s=100& year the average excess pore pressure is 40 kN/m². The average degree of consolidation of the clay at this time is: 22 a. 40% b. 60 % c. It cannot be determined based on the information given ū=, oni₂ BEng Civil Engineering -Soi Mechanics -May 2022 1:1. U= U = Uei- let. 100- /c 2 7. An oedometer sample had the following voids ratios: e=0.364 under an effective stress of 0 kPa, e=0.351 under an effective stress of 100 kPa and e=0.338 under an effective stress of 200 kPa. What is the coefficient of volume compressibility my of the soil in the range 100 - 200 kPa? a. 1.9 x 10-4 m²/kN b. 9.53 x 10-5 m²/kN c. 9.62 x 10-5 m²/kN 00See Answer
  • Q15:CENG 3232 Soil Mechanics Assignment # 3 Show all your calculations to receive the full credit. 1. (5 pts) Classify the following soils by the AASHTO classification system. No need to calculate the group index. Pick one of the soils and briefly explain how you arrive at your final answer. Soil A B с D E Inorganic Soil A B с D Sieve Analysis (% Passing) No. 40 80 92 88 55 75 E No. 10 98 100 100 85 92 No. 200 50 80 25 34 62 Liquid Limit Sieve Analysis (% Passing) No. 4 No. 200 92 48 60 40 99 76 90 60 80 35 38 56 37 28 43 2. (5 pts) Classify the following soils by the USCS. Pick one of the soils and briefly explain how you arrive at your final answer. Liquid Limit Plasticity Index 30 26 60 41 24 29 23 22 20 28 Plasticity Index Soil Type Designation 8 4 32 12 2 Group SymbolSee Answer
  • Q16:Step1. Pick a 500 foot by 500 foot section on the TAMUK campus to select an area of interest and print a soil map. Obtain necessary soil data to complete this exercise. The soil survey can be located at the website: https://websoilsurvey.nrcs.usda.gov/app/ Step2. Review the following data to be used in this exercise. Compaction curve for data given in Example 3.2 Dry density Pr (glom) 1.85 1.80 1.75 21.70 165- 160 1.55 1.50 10 12 16 Water content (%) 14 Figure 3.9 Step3. Review the attached specification (The spec. has been uploaded in blackboard) Problem Statement: With the lab results given in Step 2, does the soil in your area of interest meet the attached specifications if the nuclear density gauge reading showed a dry density value of 1.7542 g/cm³? Explain your conclusions.See Answer
  • Q17:1.) Classify the following soils using the Unified Soil Classification System (USCS) and plot each of their respective grain size distribution curves on a single semi-log scatter plot. Tables 1 and 2 have all necessary data for classification. Table 1. Sieve Analysis Data for All Soils Diam (mm) 4.75 2 1 0.5 0.15 0.075 0.05 0.003 0.002 Liquid Limit Soil A Plastic Limit 100 100 100 100 93 84 75 12 8 % Finer than by Mass Soil B Soil C 26 100 98 ΝΑ 95 ΝΑ 86 24 2 NA Soil A Soil B NA 90 75 62 48 28 Table 2. Atterberg Limits for Soils in Table 1 16 9 10 NA NA Soil C 46 34 Soil D 60 34 28 24 18 15 10 NA ΝΑ Soil D 37 18See Answer
  • Q18:2.) In a short-bulleted list, describe the major differences between the USCS, USDA, and AASHTO soil classification systems. 3.) Plot the modified proctor curve for the data collected in the Problem 2.xlsx file along with the S-80% line and the Zero Air Voids line. Additionally, compute the range of water content values the contractor should target for relative compaction values of 92% and 95% respectively.See Answer
  • Q19:1. (10 pts) The results of a standard Proctor test are given in the following table. a. Complete the table, assuming Gs = 2.6. Show one sample calculation on how you obtain the three unit weights (Y. Ya, and yz). Note that the standard mold volume is 1/30 ft³. Compaction Trial No. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Weight of moist soil in the mold (lb) 3.65 4.12 4.48 4.38 3.91 3.63 Water Content (%) 7.2 9.5 12.5 14.9 17.1 18.1 (Moist) Unit Weight (lb/ft³) Dry Unit Weight (lb/ft³) Dry Unit Weight w/ Zero Air Void (lb/ft³) b. Plot the dry unit weight data vs. water content and determine the maximum dry unit weight and optimum water content. Also, add the Zero Air Void curve in the plot. When plotting, use an MS Excel chart option (Scatter with Smooth Lines and Markers). Attach your plot (an MS Excel file) indicating the OMC and max dry unit weight. c. Determine the degree of saturation at OMC you determined (i.e., the water content and dry unit weight are known) Hint: Recall Se=wGs and ya=Gryw/(1+e) d. If the dry unit weight you achieved in the field is 105 lb/ft³, what is the relative compaction (%) of the compacted soil?/nCENG 3232 Soil Mechanics Compaction e. If the construction specification requires the field compaction to be 95% of the maximum dry unit weight, what is the range of water content that can be referenced in the field? f. As a field civil engineer, what would you do to increase the degree of compaction?See Answer
  • Q20:2. (5 pts) As part of a quality control program, the field inspection engineer conducted a sand cone test to determine the field density. The following data were recorded using the sand cone method. • Total weight of moist soil removed from the Hole: • Weight of sand cone apparatus before filling Hole: • Weight of sand cone apparatus after filling Hole: • Weight of sand to fill Cone: • Unit weight of Ottawa Sand: 7.94 Ib 14.42 lb 4.19 lb 3.43 lb 98.0 lb/ft³ Also, the water content was obtained from an oven dry method with the following data (Disregard the tin cup weight) • Weight of soil in a tin cup before drying: • Weight of soil in a tin cup after drying: 1.35 lb 1.20 lb With the dataset shown above, determine the dry unit weight of the field-compacted soil (show all your work).See Answer
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