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Cryptography is the art of securing information through encryption, rendering it unreadable except to authorized individuals. In today's digital landscape, cryptography plays a crucial role in safeguarding sensitive data across various sectors.

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**Q1:**Below is the description of block cipher mode for encryption,where E is encryption for some block cipher with block length I.Please,solve the following tasks: Draw a schematic representation for this encryption mode(for at least 3 blocks). Describe corresponding decryption process.You can either draw a scheme of decryption process for 3 blocks or use formulas. Enc(k,m1ll..lmn） 1.Generate:ro←{0，l} 2.Co To 3.for i 1 to n: (a)ri=E(k,mi) (b)C=r⊕ri-1 4.return mollmill...IImnSee Answer**Q2:**Which one of the following statements are true? Choose one answer. Ride regularization can improve the test MSE by reducing the Bis term.See Answer**Q3:**Task 4. Using Miller-Rabin prove that 149 is a prime number for witnesses a + 3 and b +4, where a is the 3rd digit of your student code, b is the 4th digit of your student code.See Answer**Q4:**Task 5. Adversary has learnt that 75^2 mod 703 = 1. 1. Show, how adversary can factor 341. 2. Show how adversary can learn message corresponding to the RSA ciphertext c = 29 under public key (n = 703, e = 5).See Answer**Q5:**Task 6. Alice invented her own protocol to share message with Bob. She decided to use encryption algorithm that has following property: Enc(ka, Enc(k₁, m)) = Enc(kb, Enc(ka, m)). Protocol works as: 1. Alice calculates ca = Enc(ka, m) where m - message, ka - key generated by Alice. She sends ca to Bob. 2. Bob calculates c = Enc(kb, ca), where k- key generated by Bob. He sends c to Alice. 3. Using the property of encryption algorithm, Alice calculates c = Dec(ka, c). She sends co to Bob. 4. Bob calculates m = Dec(kb, Cb). Assume that adversary Eve has full control over a public channel that Alice and Bob use to communicate. However, Eve cannot break cryptographic problems on which encryption algorithm relies.See Answer**Q6:**2. You want to pass a limited number of messages between two locations using a binary channel. These messages could be of life or death importance, cannot be repeated, should be difficult to intercept. How would you design such a code? See Answer**Q7:**Prof. Tashfeen CS 2163: Java Assignment 3 During the Gallic Wars, Julius Caesar was tired of his military messages being intercepted when en route to his generals. He soon started writing the messages of military importance in different ciphers. E. g., he would substitute Greek letters for each of their Roman counter parts so "computer science” would have been something like koµτvtep σkɩevke. However, a cipher more commonly attributed to him is called the Caesar cipher. He would substitute each letter in the message by the one that comes 3 places after it in the alphabet. Similarly, his generals would shift each letter of the cipher text back 3 places to read the original message. Letters at the end of the alphabet may wrap around. This way, even if the messenger was captured by the Gauls and the contents of the message exposed, they would look like utter garbage. Take, e. g., ATTACK AT DAWN. Original ABCDEFGHI Shifted DEFGHI J JKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ KLMNOPQRSTUVWXY TABLE 1. Caesar cipher with a key of k = 3. Shifted three places using the table 1, we get: DWWDFN DW GDZQ. Question 1. Use the table 1 to decipher LW KDSSHQV WRQLJKW, what do you get? Question 2. Use the table 1 to encrypt BURN THE BOATS, what do you get? Z ABC Question 3. If you were a Gallic general and knew Caesar's shifting technique, could you decipher, CVBSVPY, J'LZA WVBCVPY without knowing the key? What does it mean? Answering No, I could'nt. is fine. Question 4. What does the print statement System.out.println((char)('a'+3)) print in Java? Question 5. Read the relevant parts of the textbook as described in the online classroom. Implement Caesar Cipher with a key of -25 ≤ k ≤ 25 as a Java class CaesarCipher.java. Use this class in another file called LastnameFirstname.java. LastnameFirstname.java should interactively prompts the user for a string and then a key. It then outputs the shifted (cipher) text. When the user inputs a “q” the program should exit gracefully. You may get started with the starter code found here. 5.1. REQUIREMENTS Note that these are not merely suggestions. You will lose points (possibly all of them) if you don't fulfil these. Even if your program works. 1) You must close your scanner. 2) If the user inputs “q” for the string, your program should gracefully exit. 3) Your program must only shift the 26 letters in the English alphabet. I. e., leave the punctuation etc. alone. 4) If you obtain a cipher text using a key of k, then your program should give the original text when fed the cipher text but with a key of −k. 5) You must design the code as described, i. e., write a class in CaesarCipher.java and a REPL (Read- Eval-Print Loop) in the main method of LastnameFirstname.java. If you used the provided code then don't forget to change the name where appropriate. 6) Your program must compile and run from the command line using javac and java commands. 7) If you've been asked to demonstrate your program to the professor then you'll need to do so in his office hours or make an appointment. If you've been asked to demo your program and you fail to do so, you will receive a zero in the assignment. 1 5.2. EXAMPLE EXECUTIONS code --zsh - 80×24 [tfn@othello [ code ] % javac CaesarCipher.java [tfn@othello [ code ] % javac TashfeenAhmad.java [tfn@othello [ code ] % java TashfeenAhmad [TXT] ATTACK AT DAWN [KEY] 3 [ENC] DWWDFN DW GDZQ [TXT] DWWDFN DW GDZQ [KEY] -3 [ENC] ATTACK AT DAWN [TXT] q tfn@othello [ code ] % 2 FIGURE 1. Example execution for the assignment SUBMISSION INSTRUCTIONS program. 1) A PDF document containing the answers to all the questions. For question 5, include a screenshot like the one in figure 1. Please enlarge the font-size of your terminal such that it is not hard to read. 2) Submit your LastnameFirstname.java and CaesarCipher.java files. Note that these are not the bytecode files. You will not receive any credit if any of the files to be submitted are missing. OKLAHOMA CITY COMMUNITY COLLEGESee Answer**Q8:**1. Assessment Requirement Conduct research on any actual decentralised application currently existing in the market (eg. DeFi application, DAOs, NFTs, Metaverse, etc). Your research scope can be guided by the following questions (but not limited to): a. What is the purpose / objective of the decentralised application? b. Describe the decentralised technology (DLT/blockchain) enabling such an application. b. How does the application work? c. How does its adoption look like so far? d. How does the future of the application looks like? Your task is to create an infographic explainer (with graphics and/or video presentations) to showcase your research. The showcase must be in Instagram-able format and limited to a single post, i.e. up to 10 infographic photo/videos. Note that your work may be shared in the Instagram Account - dbkf.fintech for community learning. There will be no restrictions on different pairs in the cohort working on the same decentralised application, however, note that different pairs working on the same decentralised application may be vulnerable to plagiarism and keen competition. 2. Submission guidelines You are recommended to submit your work in a shared google folder which must be shared and accessed only with the tutor, or any other methods negotiable with the tutor. Submission deadline: 3. Assessment Criteria Criterion Content Coverage - Scope, Depth, Relevance, Accuracy Organisation - Flow & Structure, Story Telling, Engagement Clarity Creativity Visual Quality Total Weightage (%) 30 30 20 10 10 100See Answer**Q9:**Assessment Information SIT735: Application and Communication Protocol Security Assessment Task 2: Confidential Message This document supplies detailed information on the second assessment task for this unit. Key information 0 Weighting: 20% 3 Learning Outcomes This assessment assesses the following Unit Learning Outcomes (ULO) and related Graduate Learning Outcomes (GLO): Unit Learning Outcome (ULO) ULO3-Apply principles of public key cryptography to achieve secure communication networks by using digital certificates and digital signatures in compliance with industry standards. ULO4-Justify the use of cryptographic schemes on networked infrastructures to prevent the misuse of technology. Graduate Learning Outcome (GLO) GLO1: Discipline knowledge and capabilities GLO4: Critical thinking GLOS: Problem solving GLO1: Discipline knowledge and capabilities GLO4: Critical thinking GLOS: Problem solving Purpose This assessment allows you to demonstrate your ability to send confidential messages. Instructions This is an individual assessment task. Create a public and private key pair to encrypt and decrypt a message. Students should submit the following files: The message: This should be a text file, which contains your "encrypted" message. The message should contain your student ID and name (message.txt). You should use the openssl commands. The document: This should be a .pdf file of no more than four pages, split in three sections with cosponsoring openssl command's (and provide screenshots of each step): o Section 1: List the openssl commands you used to encrypt the message. o Section 2: "List" the openssl commands (including options and parameters) that you used to decrypt the message. Note that, those commands will be executed within the folder where the encrypted message is located. o Section 3: "Describe" the communication protocol you have used to communicate in graphical notation, such as Alice and Bob notation. Use the description of the protocol to explain how authenticity of the sender and integrity of the message are achieved. If further openssl command to verify authenticity and/or integrity are needed, please, add them too. • Keys: Cryptographic keys necessary for encryption or decryption (that is generated public and private keys). Do not zip your files./nAssessment Information Important technical information: Encryption and decryption will be done with the command line tool using openssl. Each instruction should be in the form of an openssl instruction to be executed within the folder where the submitted files are downloaded. The current stable version of openssl is 3. See the rubric below for more details on what we expect from you. Submission details The files must be submitted via CloudDeakin no later than Sunday 20 August 2023, 11.55pm (AEST). Extension requests Requests for extensions should be made to Unit/Campus Chairs well in advance of the assessment due date. Please follow the link for detailed information and a form: http://www.deakin.edu.au/students/faculties/sebe Special consideration You may be eligible for special consideration if circumstances beyond your control prevent you from undertaking or completing an assessment task at the scheduled time. See the following link for advice on the application process: http://www.deakin.edu.au/students/studying/assessment-and-results/special- consideration Assessment feedback You will receive feedback in the form of a marking rubric no later than two weeks after the deadline. Academic integrity, plagiarism and collusion Plagiarism and collusion constitute extremely serious breaches of academic integrity. They are forms of cheating, and severe penalties are associated with them, including cancellation of marks for a specific assignment, for a specific unit or even exclusion from the course. If you are ever in doubt about how to properly use and cite a source of information refer to the referencing site above. Plagiarism occurs when a student passes off as the student's own work, or copies without acknowledgement as to its authorship, the work of any other person or resubmits their own work from a previous assessment task. Collusion occurs when a student obtains the agreement of another person for a fraudulent purpose, with the intent of obtaining an advantage in submitting an assignment or other work. Work submitted may be reproduced and/or communicated by the university for the purpose of assuring academic integrity of submissions: https://www.deakin.edu.au/students/study- support/referencing/academic-integritySee Answer**Q10:**In your favorite language (preferable in Python) create the following functions: 1. MRT => Use Miller-Rabin Primality Test to choose a prime number with s=512 bits and check the primality test. Project 3 on RSA: 2. EA => Use Euclidean Algorithm to evaluate gcd 3. EEA => Use Extended Euclidean Algorithm to find modular inverse of the value 4. powmod_sm => Square and multiply algorithm to evaluate exponentiation. Now write the code for I. RSA Key Generation (use above functions 1., 2., 3.) should be II. III. a. Choose two primes p and q of s bits using MRT where p is not equal to q. b. Calculate n = p * q, and (n) = (p − 1) * (q − 1) c. Chose randomly e from the set of {1,..., (n)-1} and check using EA if gcd(e, (n)) = 1 if not chosen again until it fulfills the condition. d. Calculate d = e¹ mod (n) using EEA. Note that d should be at least 0.3 * s bits e. Output k pub= (n, e) and k Pr (d) Pub RSA Encryption with input k (n, e) and random plaintext x and output should be ciphertext y, evaluate exponentiation using the function powmod_sm RSA Decryption with input kp = (d) and ciphertext y and output should be plaintext.x, evaluate exponentiation using the function powmod_sm. Please make sure to check that you get the same plaintext value before the encryption. = = Please write your report and include a snapshot of output with you source code.See Answer**Q11:**Part 1: The first part is about: 1. Describing the protocol in standard cryptographic notation, also known as Alice-Bob notation. Information on this notation can be found at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Security_protocol_notation and https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Message_sequence_chart. 2. Talk about the weakness or vulnerabilities of the protocol if any. If exists, how to improve the security posture of that protocol. *** Protocol description and analysis (for Part 1): Protocol description: required to provide a graphical description of the protocol as Alice-Bob notation. • Security properties: A description of what is the security property that the protocol intends to achieve. Discussion of weakness: Discuss if there exists any vulnerability within the protocol. • Justification: Improve if there is any flaw and then add an explanation of why the protocol does satisfy the intended security property.See Answer**Q12:**Part 2: The second part is related to the password Cracking. Although we have discussed about the dictionary attack and other security challenges related to the password attack. In this task, we will guide you with some references and your task will be to learn and demonstrate your capabilities. So follow the tasks below for the second part: 1. You need to "crack" either "Linux" or "Windows" passwords (you are welcome to attempt both but not mandatory). 2. There are a few tools like "John the Ripper", "Hashcat", or others. You can use any tools (can use multiple but not mandatory). See the reference https://www.openwall.com/john/ for John the Ripper. 3. Conduct password attack. *** Demonstration of password cracking (for Part2): • Demonstrate the step-by-step procedure of the password cracking attack Ensure that you have explained what tool you have used, and all steps with screenshots and clear explanation.See Answer**Q13:**On Access Subtask 1 Create a new user. Give him a short 3-4 letter password. Use crunch to create a dictionary, and then use hashcat to recover the password. You should submit the following. 1. A screenshot of your shadow file showing your new user and his hashed password. 2. A screenshot showing hashcat recovering your password. 3. Assume your password is three letters long, and the symbols are only alphanumeric (A- z0-9). How many bits of entropy is the password?See Answer**Q14:**Problems: 1. Explain in your own words: what is a bitcoin private key, a public key, and a bitcoin address. (2pts) 2. Develop an executable program including the following functions. a. Randomly generate a 256-bit bitcoin private key presented in hex format (3pts) b. Derive a bitcoin public key with the generated private key using Elliptic Curve Cryptography (ECC) satisfying the secp256k1¹ standard (3pts) 3. Design a simple demo by running your program and include screenshots and/or output results for each function required. (2pts) 4. (Bonus) Improve your program to enable generating private keys using several mnemonic code words (e.g. using 12 words). (2pts) Requirements: 1. Please submit your assignment in one Word or PDF file. 2. Include your source code and screenshots in your submission file. 3. You may use any programming language you are proficient with such as C/C++/Python/Java/Javascript/Shell. 4. Develop your own code from scratch. You may import libraries or toolkits available. Properly acknowledge/refer the libraries and toolkits used in your submission file. 5. This is an individual assignment. Please work on your own.See Answer**Q15:**2.3 Perhaps the simplest "serious" symmetric block encryption algorithm is the Tiny Encryption Algorithm (TEA). TEA operates on 64-bit blocks of plaintext using a 128-bit key. The plaintext is divided into two 32-bit blocks (Lo, Ro), and the key is divided into four 32-bit blocks (Ko, K₁, K2, K3). Encryption involves repeated appli- cation of a pair of rounds, defined as follows for rounds i and i+1: -non lo buon L₁ = R₁-1 R₁ Li+1 = R Ri+LF(R₁, K₂, K3, 8+1) = = Li-1 F(R-1, Ko, K₁, 8;) where F is defined as giuo F(M, Kj, K, 8) = ((M<<<4) EK) ((M>> 5) HK) (M= 8) and where the logical shift of x by y bits is denoted by xy, the logical right shift of x by y bits is denoted by xy, and 8; is a sequence of predetermined constants. a. Comment on the significance and benefit of using the sequence of constants. b. Illustrate the operation of TEA using a block diagram or flow chart type of depiction. e. If only one pair of rounds is used, then the ciphertext consists of the 64-bit block (L2, R₂). For this case, express the decryption algorithm in terms of equations. d. Repeat part (c) using an illustration similar to that used for part (b).See Answer**Q16:**2.8 Another approach to deskewing is to consider the bit stream as a sequence of non- overlapping groups of n bits each and output the parity of each group. That is, if a group contains an odd number of ones, the output is 1; otherwise the output is 0. a. Express this operation in terms of a basic Boolean function. b. Assume, as in the Problem 2.7, that the probability of a 1 is 0.5 + 8. If each group consists of 2 bits, what is the probability of an output of 1? c. If each group consists of 4 bits, what is the probability of an output of 1? d. Generalize the result to find the probability of an output of 1 for input groups of n bits.See Answer**Q17:**21/1 2.11 Alice and Bob agree to communicate privately via e-mail using a scheme based on RC4, but they want to avoid using a new secret key for each transmission. Alice and Bob privately agree on a 128-bit key k. To encrypt a message m consisting of a string of bits, the following procedure is used. 1. Choose a random 80-bit value v 2. Generate the ciphertext c= RC4(v || k) + m 3. Send the bit string (v || c) a. Suppose Alice uses this procedure to send a message m to Bob. Describe how Bob can recover the message m from (v|c) using k. b. If an adversary observes several values (v₁|c₁), (v₂|| c₂),... transmitted be- tween Alice and Bob, how can he or she determine when the same key stream has been used to encrypt two messages?See Answer**Q18:**IV 2.16 Padding may not always be appropriate. For example, one might wish to store the encrypted data in the same memory buffer that originally contained the plaintext. In that case, the ciphertext must be the same length as the original plaintext. A mode for that purpose is the ciphertext stealing (CTS) mode. Figure 2.12a shows an implemen- tation of this mode. P₁ K→Encrypt K C₁ P₁ IV (bb bits) Encrypt C₁ (bb bits) ... CN-3 CN-3- ... K K- PN-2 Encrypt PN-2 (bb bits) (+) CN-2 (a) Ciphertext stealing mode Encrypt CN-2 (bb bits) KEncrypt PN-1 (bb bits) KEncrypt PN-1. CN-1 (bb bits) CN X K KEncrypt (b) Alternative method Figure 2.12 Block Cipher Modes for Plaintext not a Multiple of Block Size PN 00...0 Encrypt CN-1 Select leftmost j bits PN (j bits) CN (j bits)See Answer**Q19:**1. Which description about Information Theoretic Security is NOT correct? (5 points) ( ) A. Ciphertext should reveal no "information about Plaintext (except for its length). B. One-Time Pad can achieve Information Theoretic Security. C. If the cipher can achieve Information Theoretic Security, the probability distribution of the plaintext would change after knowing the ciphertext. D. To achieve Information Theoretic Security, the key should be completely random and at least as long as the plaintext/ciphertext.See Answer**Q20:**2. We assume Z26 = {0, 1, 25} is the alphabet for One-Time Pad, and the Plaintext space= Ciphertext space = Key space= (Z26)³. If the plaintext is (11, 8, 5, 19, 22) and the key is (2, 20, 15, 10, 6), what is the ciphertext? (5 points) ( ) A. (13, 2, 20, 3, 2). B. (13, 28, 20, 29, 28). C. (13, 28, 20, 29, 2) D. (13, 24, 6, 23, 24).See Answer

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