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**Q1:**Given the discussion on the different reactor types and the assumptions that are used in developing mole balances for each reactor type, answer the following: 1) (5 points) State an assumption that is the same between a batch reactor and a CSTR. 2) (5 points) State an assumption that is different between a batch reactor and a CSTR. 3) (5 points) State an assumption that is the same between a CSTR and a PFR. 4) (5 points) State an assumption that is different between a CSTR and a PFR.See Answer**Q2:**The following data were obtained for this chemical reaction: A+B+C → P.with concentrations CA, CB and Cc and the rate of the reaction -rA, where the reaction rate is give with a factor x. (a) Determine the rate law for this reaction. (b) Find the rate constant.See Answer**Q3:**4. Repeat Problem 3 if the reactor is PFR instead of CSTR.See Answer**Q4:**3. Discuss the advantages and dis advantages of reactive distillation. (5 Marks)See Answer**Q5:**2. Explain the application of extractive distillation in nitric acid dehydration using suitable solvent with neat sketch. (4+1=5 Marks).See Answer**Q6:**1. Explain the concept of Azeotropic distillation for the separation of Acetone,chloroform with neat sketch. (4+1=5 Marks).See Answer**Q7:**Find the conversion after one-hour in a batch reactor for (15 points) A R -r_{A}=3 C_{A}^{0.5} \quad \text { aqol/lit/hr } \quad \text { CAQ=1.5 mol/lit }See Answer**Q8:**a) In the 8 step problem solving method, why is the dependent variable determined before the independent variables? b) What is a control volume? Why is it important to choose the dependent variable before selecting the control volume? c) Once a solution is obtained and the model is built, what is one step that can be taken to check the model predictions and gain confidence that the solution is accurate?See Answer**Q9:**Relax the restriction that there is no A inside of the isothermal CSTR at time zero. Instead the concentration of the reactant A is cA, which is not zero, when the reactor is started. The other conditions hold, namely the reaction is irreversible and first-order with rate coefficient k, and both the volumetric flow rate Q and concentration of A in the feed cA; are constant. Develop an equation to model the concentration of reactant A as a function of time, which is called the transient response. Use the 8 step method to develop the model and solve the differential equation using the integrating factor method. Examine the limiting cases based on time, t → 0 and t → 0, and briefly describe the significance of the results.See Answer**Q10:**Examine the limiting cases based on the model parameters for the isothermal CSTR with nonzero initial reactant concentration from the previous problem.Comment on the meaning of the result. \text { a) } \tau \rightarrow 0 \text { b) } \tau \rightarrow \infty \text { c) } k \rightarrow 0 \text { d) } k \rightarrow \inftySee Answer**Q11:**Reactant A is loaded into a batch reactor. The temperature of the reactor is raised to start the first-order irreversible decomposition reaction of A to products.Develop a model for the transient response of reactant A in the batch reactor. The initial concentration of reactant A in the reactor is c40. The volume of the reactor, V, is fixed. Use the 8 step method to develop the model and solve the differential equation using the characteristic equation method. Use your model to write an equation that predicts how long it takes for 65% of reactant A to decompose.See Answer**Q12:**A continuous stirred tank is often used to isolate a process stream to protect the downstream equipment. Thus it serves as a buffer between components such as reactors, heat exchangers, and mixers in a processing line. A process produces species A according to a program; the concentration of A increases linearly for a period of time, levels out for a period of time, then decreases linearly for a period of time. The times and the starting and ending concentrations are always different. These differences create problems in operating the equipment downstream since each component has to adapt to the differing concentrations. An alternative is to feed species A to a continuous stirred tank just after it's produced and deliver a predictable concentration to all of the downstream equipment. In this problem, we will complete one part of the tank design by finding the response to the linear ramp up in concentration. The concentration of species A fed to a continuous stirred tank increases linearly with time at a rate E, which has units of concentration per time. We model this ramp up in the concentration as cA1 = CAm + Et, where t is time. The concentration CAm is the starting value in the feed pipe and is a constant. The volumetric flow rate in the pipe is constant although the reactant concentration varies. The continuous stirred tank has a volume V. The initial concentration of species A in the tank is CA0. Find the transient response of species A in the tank to the linear ramp up in concentration. Use the 8 step method to develop the model. For the purpose of this problem, let CAm = CA0. How is time zero defined?See Answer**Q13:**The process shown in Figure P3.91 is the dehydrogenation of propane (C,Hg) topropylene (C,H) according to the reaction \mathrm{C}_{3} \mathrm{H}_{8} \rightarrow \mathrm{C}_{3} \mathrm{H}_{6}+\mathrm{H}_{2} The conversion of reactor at F, is 40%. The product flow rate F, is 50 kg, mol/hr.propane to propylene based on the total propane feed into the (a) Calculate all the six flow rates F, to F, in kg mol/hr. (b) Whal 18of propane in the reactor based on the freshpropane fed to the process (F,). See Answer**Q14:**Consider a first order liquid phase reaction, A-B is carried out in a CSTRSee Answer**Q15:**A radioactive nuclide is reduced by 90% in 12 min. What is its half-life?See Answer**Q16:**A reaction of great social significance is the fermentation of sugar with yeast. Thisis a zero-order (in sugar) reaction, where the yeast is a catalyst (it does not enterthe reaction itself). If a 0.5-L bottle contains 4 g of sugar, and it takes 30 min toconvert 50% of the sugar, what is the rate constant?See Answer**Q17:**A batch reactor is designed to remove gobbledygook by adsorption. The data are asfollows: What order of reaction does this appear to be? Graphically estimate the rateconstant.See Answer**Q18:**ammonia is synthesized from dinitrogen and dihydrogen in the presenceof a metal catalyst. Fishel et al. used a constant volume reactor systemthat circulated the reactants over a heated ruthenium metal catalyst andthen immediately condensed the product ammonia in a cryogenic trap [c.T. Fishel, R. J. Davis, and J. M. Garces, J. Catal. 163(1996) 148]. A schematic diagram of the system is: From the data presented in the following tables, determine the rates ofammonia synthesis (moles NH3 produced per min per gcat) at 350°Cover a supported ruthenium catalyst (0.20 g) and the orders of reactionwith respect to dinitrogen and dihydrogen. Pressures are referenced to298 K and the total volume of the system is 0.315 L. Assume that noammonia is present in the gas phase. See Answer**Q19:**2. In class, we derived expressions for the dissociation rate constant according to the Lindemann mechanism. Here, consider the Lindemann mechanism for the following association reaction: Derive an expression for the association rate constant, k, defined as as a function of CM in terms of ka, ka, and k, using the steady state assumption for C*. Also derive expressions for the limiting cases of the low- and high-pressure limits. (35 points)See Answer**Q20:**The gas phase reaction A + B → C occurs in a flow reactor. The rate law is given below. KCACB -TA 1 + KCA The initial concentration of A is 1 M and the initial concentration of B is 1.5 M in the feed. k = 0.1 min¹ M-¹ and K = 2.5 M¹¹. The inlet volumetric flow rate is 2 L/min. Assume that the reactors are isothermal and isobaric./na. If the reaction takes place in a CSTR, what is the volume of the CSTR that is needed to achieve 70% conversion? b. If the reaction takes place in a PFR, what is the volume of the PFR that is needed to achieve 70% conversion? For the remainder of this problem assume that there is an inert gas in the feed with concentration c₁ = 4 M. c. If the reaction takes place in a CSTR, what is the volume of the CSTR that is needed to achieve 70% conversion? d. If the reaction takes place in a PFR, what is the volume of the PFR that is needed to achieve 70% conversion? e. If the reaction takes place in a PFR, what is the volume of the PFR that is needed to achieve 70% conversion if K = 0.25 M¹¹?See Answer

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