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**Q1:**1. Your Biotech Company is interested in manufacturing catalyst particles to be used (suspended) in a stirred tank reactor. The manufacturing process will generate porous, cylindrically shaped particles (i.e. with a characteristic height - h, and radius-R) - which will allow for diffusion only through the end caps (i.e. axial, NOT radial diffusion). A local pharmaceutical company requests that you immobilize an enzyme that they use in the production of an antibiotic onto the internal surface (i.e. within the pores) of the cylindrical catalyst particles. When these catalyst particles are created, it is determined that standard Michaelis. Mention kinetics are observed, where: V (mol/m² s) = Vm"[S] / Km + [S] With and Vm" = 1 mol/m² min, defined per unit of catalyst surface area Km = 10 mol/l. The catalyst particle having a density of 1.4 g/ml and 2.0 m² of internal surface area per gram of catalyst particle. The concentration of substrate in the antibiotic production process is 0.25 mol/l. The effective diffusivity of the substrate in the interior of the catalysts is 1 x 10-⁹ m²/s. There is no enzyme bound to the exterior of the particle. The radius of the particles is 8mm. The conditions in the stirred tank are such that the bulk substrate concentration is equal to the substrate concentration at the entrance to the pores (i.e. no external mass transfer resistance), and is constant over time (i.e. CSTR). a.) Develop a differential equation that represents the conservation of substrate inside the catalyst particle. List the boundary conditions. b.) Make this differential equation dimensionless, and identify the Thiele modulus (and the parameters, such as De, that make it up). c.) Solve the dimensionless differential equation, obtaining the concentration profile of substrate versus position inside the catalyst particle. Apply the boundary conditions to obtain the specific solution. d.) Determine the relationship between the effectiveness factor and the Thiele modulus for this cylindrical catalyst particle, and plot this relationship. e.) Recommend the maximum particle length to use for the antibiotic production process, that ensures that the reaction is not significantly (i.e. less than 5% reduction from the max possible reaction rate) reduced by diffusional limitations inside the particle.See Answer**Q2:**Exercise 1. An aqueous stream F of 0.11 kg/s comprises pyridine and water in equal weights. This stream should be purified in a countercurrent extraction process (see Figure 1). The concentration of pyridine in the raffinate RN should be reduced to 5 wt% (or less). Pure benzene is to be used as solvent S. The ternary equilibrium diagram of water-pyridine-benzene is given in Figure 2. a) Calculate the minimum solvent stream, Smin b) The solvent stream Sis chosen to be 0.11 kg/s. Determine the value of flow E₁ c) d) Determine the number of equilibrium separation stages, N. Determine the size and composition of the extract leaving the second stage, E₂, 17 ke/s. (c) Nr. = 3, (d) XSee Answer**Q3:**Need a lab report Write paragraphs in Abstract, introduction, Safety . And follow the experiment MEMO and the experiment procedure to know what data you should calculate.See Answer**Q4:**Problem 4. Activation energy Razavi, Blagodatskaya, and Kuzyakox (2015) found the maximum rate of xylanase in soil samples at different temperatures. They used a sample size of 0.5 g of soil and an enzyme concentration of 1 umol, the results are in the following table: a) Calculate the values of KCAT and the energy of activation of the reaction.See Answer**Q5:**2. In this problem,biomass.we will analyze real data for a process to produce renewable chemicals from The reaction can be written R(a q)+H_{2}(g) \rightarrow P(a q) where R is the organic reactant and P is the product. This is an irreversible reaction. Reactions were carried out in a constant-volume stainless-steel, high-pressure batch reactor. The reactor was charged with 35-40 mL of the reactant solution (at a given concentration in water) and sealed. After removing air in the reactor with inert gas, pure H₂ gas was added to the reactor at room temperature (20 °C), filling the reactor gas head space (head space volume = 250 mL). Once the reactor was heated to reaction temperature, the concentration of the reactant R was monitored by taking samples from the reactor over time and analyzing their concentration by HPLC. R and P are dilute solutions in water, so you can ignore any changes in solution volume with time. The experimental data for this problem is in the attached Excel sheet. A platinum catalyst was used in all experiments, and the mass of catalyst used for each experiment is provided in the Excel file. In this problem, you will need to report reaction rates normalized per catalyst mass, in units of mol/hr/g catalyst. a) Compute the rate with units of mol/L/hr (from the concentration data), then use the provided liquid volume and catalyst mass to convert this to a rate per mass of catalyst (mol/hr/gcatalyst). Consider the following set of reaction conditions: Initial R concentration, CRO = 1500 mmol/L with a liquid volume of 40 mL Initial H₂ pressure, 1000 psig (charged at room temperature, 20 °C) with a headspace volume of 250 mL b) Which is the limiting reactant, R or H₂? Calculate the maximum conversion of the excess reactant. You can assume that the H₂ solubility in the liquid phase is negligible (i.e. the full amount of H₂ is in the gas phase). You should find that the excess reagent be treated as"differential" because its concentration does not change much during the experiment. The student running the experiments first wants to assess the reaction order with respect to H₂, so they keep temperature and CRO fixed and vary the H₂ pressure (Excel, experiments 1-3). Calculate the H₂reaction order using the differential method: c) Calculate the initial reaction rates ro (mol/hr/gecatalyst) for each p10 from the concentration vs time date d) Construct a log-log kinetic plot to calculate the H₂ reaction order. What is the H₂ reaction order? e) The student's supervisor suggests that they could speed up the rate of the reaction 3x by runningthe reaction at 3x higher H₂ pressures. Do you agree? Why or why not? Next, the student wants to assess the reaction order with respect to R, the liquid-phase reactant. They measured the concentration of R over time starting from an initial concentration of CRO= 752 mM (Excel,experiment 4). They hypothesize that this reaction is either 0, 1st, or 2nd order with respect to R. Gadsf) Fit their concentration vs time data to three integral kinetic models to determine which model best fits the data. Linearize all three models and show plots where the y-axis is a linearized function of concentration, the x-axis is time. g) Identify which of these three models best fits the experimental data and report the resulting rate constant with correct units (note that the rate should have unis of mol/hr/gcatalyst). You can ignore any terms associated with PH₂ in the rate equation because the pressure of H₂ is kept constant.. Next, the student, wants to assess the apparent activation energy, Eapp, so they keep the H₂ pressure and reactant concentration Cro fixed and vary the temperature (Excel, experiments 5-7). Note that the apparent activation energy is defined as dln(r)/d(). -h) Use the differential method to calculate the initial rate (mol/hr/gcatalyst) at each temperature i) Create an Arrhenius plot and use it to determine EappSee Answer**Q6:**Consider the reaction of furfural (1) and butanol (2) reacting to form furfuryl alcohol (3) andbutyraldehyde (4). This reaction is important in the context of biomass upgrading, to form fuels andchemicals from platform molecules and is usually run in the liquid phase using an Mg6Al2O9 catalyst. Calculate the delta g° and the K of the reaction at 298 and at 433 K. Use data from NIST for enthalpies and entropies at 298 K. Remember, deltag° = deltah°-T deltasº. You may assume that the enthalpy change of the reaction is constant.i. ii.Calculate the deltag° and the K of the reaction at 298 and at 433 K using data from the Yaws handbook. Calculate the extent of the reaction at 433 K, if initially there are 2 mol of furfural and 1 mol of butanol in the system, assuming the system is an ideal solution of x1 = 0.2 and x2 = 0.1 in.toluene.See Answer**Q7:**You will need the following data:R = 8.314 kPa L molK1I from the information above in KelvinV from the information above in LP in kPaNote: the units all have to be in the same form when used in calculations!!!100% H2O2 density is 1.45 g/mL5 mL of a solution containing an unknown concentration of hydrogen peroxide wasdecomposed at 25 °C releasing 48 mL of gas. The temperature of the container used to measure the volume of gas produced was 20 °C.To find BOTH the concentration of hydrogen peroxide in the solution AND the percentage of hydrogen peroxide in solution work through the following steps.1.Rearrange the ideal gas law to solve for n.2. Convert the temperature of the water in the collection vessel from °C to Kelvin (K). Therefore: T =3.Convert the current barometric pressure in the room from hPa to kPa. The Macquarie university weather station data can be used to find the pressure http://aws.mq.edu.au.Use the current pressure which is given in hectopascals. Use 1018 hPa if unavailable.10 hPa = 1 kPa So divide hPa by 10 to convert to kPa.Convert the volume of oxygen from mL to Liters and solve for the number of moles ofO2. Be sure the units cancel so that you end up with only the moles of O2. See Answer**Q8:**12. Plot the data above (volume vs time in sec) on graph paper and draw the line-of-best-fit through the first 3 or 4 of the data points.(Graph paper given. Label axes correctly)13. From the slope (rise over run) of this line of best fit what is the initial rate of reaction in mL O2 produced per sec.14. Convert this to mol/sec using the ideal gas law.15. Convert this to rate of reaction of hydrogen peroxide reacted per sec. (Hint: This will be twice the rate of oxygen production based on the stoichiometry as two H2O2 decompose to make one O2.) 16. Convert this to concentration of hydrogen peroxide reacted per second in the reaction(Assume the reaction volume is 10 mL and the units are mol L's').See Answer

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