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**Q1:**1. Classify petroleum refining processes and operations into five basic types.See Answer**Q2:**2. Give a general description of what happens in the first distillation column (atmospheric fractional distillation). See Answer**Q3:**3. What is the purpose of the vacuum distillation step? What is fed to it? What are its products? See Answer**Q4:**Question 1 [50 marks] A tray distillation column is used to separate a multicomponent mixture of propane, n-butane, n-pentane, and n-hexane. Vapor leaving the first tray (uppermost tray) is then fed to a partial condenser which operates at 3.07 bara. The distillate composition is shown in Table 1 and the external reflux ratio is 2.5. Table 1. Distillate composition Component n-propane n-butane n-pentane n-hexane Composition (mol basis) 0.05 0.75 0.12 0.08 a. Sketch a schematic diagram for the process clearly showing the flow of vapor and liquid entering and leaving the column first tray (uppermost tray) and condenser. [5 marks] [10 marks] b. Calculate the distillate temperature (K). c. An air cooler is proposed to be used as the condenser. Can you please assess the suitability for this operation? [5 marks] d. Estimate the temperature of the column first tray (uppermost tray) (K). Assume that the pressure is 3.07 bara. [20 marks] e. Determine the vapor composition leaving the second tray (second uppermost tray) and state reasonable assumption(s) for your calculation. [10 marks]See Answer**Q5:**Question 2 [30 marks] A tray distillation column fractionates a mixture of n-hexane, n-heptane, and n-octane. The liquid leaving the last tray (lowermost tray) is introduced to a reboiler which operates at 413 K and 3.07 bara. The composition of the liquid entering the reboiler is shown in Table 2. Table 2. Composition of liquid entering reboiler. Composition (mol basis) Component n-hexane n-heptane n-octane 0.12 0.78 0.1 a. Calculate the boil-up ratio of this operation. [10 marks] b. Determine the composition of the vapor entering the last tray (lowermost tray) of the column. [10 marks] 2 c. There is a suggestion from a newly joined process engineer to increase the reboiler temperature to 420 K while maintaining the pressure and feed composition the same. Evaluate the feasibility of this suggestion. You need to support your evaluation with detailed calculations. [10 marks]See Answer**Q6:**Question 3 [20 marks] a. Simulation of multicomponent distillation in process simulation environment (e.g. Aspen Hysys, Aspen Plus, ChemCad) is very handy. Nevertheless, the approximate methods using Fenske Underwood Gilliland Kirkbride equations cannot be undermined. Can you please explain how these approximate methods are useful to establish the simulation using simulation package? [10 marks] b. Can you please elaborate the advantages and limitations of MESH equations for the multicomponent distillations? In line with the limitations, you should also highlight the ways to overcome the challenges of the implementation. [10 marks]See Answer**Q7:**Q3: (25 Points) It has been decided to sidetrack a well from 1500 ft. The sidetrack will be a build and hold profile with the following specifications: TVD of Bottom of Hole: Horizontal departure: Build up Rate: Calculate the following: 10000 ft. 3500 ft. 1.5° per 100 ft. (a) Radius of curvature (b) Drift angle of the well. (b) TVD, MD and horizontal departure at the end of buildup section (c) TVD, MD and horizontal departure at the midpoint of buildup section (d) TVD, MD and horizontal departure at the midpoint of tangent section (e) Length of the arc and length of tangent (f) Total measured depth to the target./nQ4: (25 Points) A slant hole is to have a target depth of 5374 ft from mean sea level with 2147 ft south coordinate and 3226 ft east coordinate. The rotary bushing elevation is 780 ft from mean sea level. The magnetic declination is 6° east, KOP is 1510 ft and BUR is 20/100 ft. Find: 1. Target closure and azimuth 2. Maximum inclination angle 3. MD, TVD, and departure at EOB 4. MD, TVD, and departure at target 5. MD, TVD, and departure at 3000 ft 6. MD, TVD, and departure at 5426 ftSee Answer**Q8:**Question 1. 1. Derive the design equations for gas capacity and oil capacity constraints for a horizontal separator for the following two cases: i. The gas occupies 75% of the separator effective volume. ii. The gas occupics 25% of the separator effective volume.See Answer**Q9:**Design a horizontal separatoe to handle the field production. If the field is located offshore, design the appropriate separator to handle the field production.See Answer**Q10:**1. Classify petroleum refining processes and operations into five basic types.See Answer**Q11:**2. Give a general description of what happens in the first distillation column (atmospheric fractional distillation). See Answer**Q12:**Oil has the capability to disperse as a very thin layer on a water surface. The moleculardiameter of a particular oil is known to be 3 x 10-7 cm. A quantity of this oil, when placedcarefully on a water surface, eventually spreads to an area of 16 x 104 m2 in amonomolecular layer. a) Calculate the volume of the oil. (7 marks) b.What would be the area of a monomolecular layer produced from a teaspoonful (5 ml)of this oil? (3 marks) The average CO2 emissions from new passenger cars registered in the European Union(EU), Iceland, Norway and the United Kingdom (UK) in 2019 was 122.4 g of CO2 per kilometre (European Environment Agency, 2020). In the year 2000, the figure was 172.1g per kilometre. .If, on average, the annual mileage of a passenger car in the EU is 12,000miles a year, c)calculate its CO2 emission for 2019. (3 marks) d)Then calculate the percentage reduction compared to a passenger car used in the year 2000.See Answer**Q13:**4. Say we have a 6000 ft well 13 inches in diameter and we lower 10.75 inch casing into the well at 3 fps. The fluid is1215cp mud. What will the pressure at the bottom of ppg the well be when all 6000 feet of casing are in the well.Assume the casing is floated in...(be sure to include the static head as well as surge)= closed at the bottom.See Answer**Q14:**2. We need to calculate the clay required to make up mud.Assume a mud volume of 200 BBL. A high yield clay (33BBL/ton) will be used. a. How many 100 lbm. "sacks" of clay are required? b. How much water is needed? What is the mud density before weighting? d.How 200 lbm. "sacks" of barite are required to many raise the density by 0.25 ppg? Calculate the pressure at the bottom of the well.C. e.Calculate the pressure at the bottom of the well.See Answer**Q15:**5. A well is being drilled at 7,500 ft. A sudden increase in pit volume is observed. In the 3 minutes it takes to notice the increase and close the BOP's, 18 barrels of mud are "gained". The original mud density was 10.4Ibm/gal and circulation was 370 gpm. After stabilization, a drill pipe pressure of 200 psig and a casing pressure of 300 psig were observed. This is a11" hole with 19.5#, 5" OD drill pipe and 9x4" drill collars (300ft). Calculate the kick density.See Answer**Q16:**1. We are using an 12 lb/gal mud with Fann VG readings of22 at 300 rpm and 34 at 600 rpm. We have 6000 ft of 4.26inch inside diameter 5 inch outside diameter drill pipe. The pump outlet pressure is rated to a maximum of 3000 psia and the well is 6000 ft deep. if the mud was designed for "balance" when not circulating, what is the reservoir pressure?a. b. What are K and n?n c. What are Hpand t, ?Hp d. The bit has 3 nozzles 15/32 in diameter, i. What is the pressure drop across the bit if we circulate at 500 gpm? ii. What would the frictional pressure drop through drill pipe be? iii. What would the frictional pressure drop through the annulus be? iv. So what would the pump pressure be, and does this pose a problem?See Answer**Q17:**3. We have cuttings composed of.11 cm diameter spheres of quartz (sp gr = 2.6) in the mud described in problem 1. a. What is the slip velocity? b. If we want a transport ratio of 0.53, what is the circulation rate in gpm if the hole is 13 7/8 inches in diameter?See Answer

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