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• Q1: For each of the following pairs of statements, specify whether the two statements are contradictories, contraries, or subcontraries. For each of the following pairs of statements, specify whether the two statements are contradictories, contraries, or subcontraries.tmartes 1. All Athenians are Greeks/.No Athenians are Greeks/.2. Some Athenians are Greeks//.Some Athenians are not Greeks/.3. All Athenians are Greeks/./Some Athenians are not Greeks.4. No Athenians a re Greeks./Some Athenians are Greeks./See Answer
• Q3: 1.State the contradictory of "All Greeks are religious./"2. State the contradictory of "No Greeks are religious./"3. State the contradictory of "Some Greeks are religious."/State the contradictory of "Some Greeks are not religious."/State the contrary of "All Greeks are religious."/State the contrary of "No Greeks are religious."State the subcontrary of "Some Greeks are religious."/8. State the sub contrary of "Some Greeks are not religious."See Answer
• Q4: 2. All Spartans are diplomats. So, it is false that no Spartans are are diplomats.See Answer
• Q5: 7. In the most recent presidential election, going into election day, the polls had Joe Biden leading Donald Trump, nationally, by over 5 pts. And, indeed,after counting all the votes, Joe Biden beat Donal Trump by over 5 pts. The pollsters, undoubtedly, used inductive reasoning in correctly concluding that Biden would beat Trump by over 5 pts. Inductive reasoning allows us to predict the future. Explain in your own words how we know the pollsters used inductive reasoning. Describe the inductive reasoning involved in concluding that Biden would beat Trump by about 5%.See Answer
• Q6: 8. Pfizer, one of the makers of the vaccine against Covid-19, concluded that their vaccine was over 94% effective. Undoubtedly, the scientists at Pfizer used inductive reasoning to draw their conclusion. Explain in your own words how we now the scientists for Pfizer us ed inductive reasoning. Describe the inductive reasoning that was involved in concluding that the vaccine in over 94% effect.See Answer
• Q7: 11. A theory is scientific only if it is empirically testable. That is, an essential feature of a scientific theory is that it can be empirically tested. Explain in your own words what this means.Provide an example of a theory that is not scientific.See Answer
• Q8: 5. In the Third Meditation, Descartes talks about three sources of ideas:innate, adventitious, and self-created. Explain what these ideas are. Howdoes Descartes relate the idea of an idea's source with the idea of God?Where does Descartes claim the idea of God comes from?See Answer
• Q9: 4. In the Second Meditation, Descartes introduces the wax analogy. Explainthe significance of the wax example. What was the purpose in Descartes'example?See Answer
• Q10: 3. In the Second Meditation, Descartes argues that we can be certain of onething. What does he claim we can know with certainty, and what is thereason he gives? Do you agree that we can know this with certainty?See Answer
• Q11: 2. In the First Meditation, Descartes provides two skeptical arguments. Whatare they, and what kind of knowledge claims does each argument call intoquestion?See Answer
• Q12: In Descartes' First Meditation, why does he set about doubting all of hisknowledge? What is he hoping to achieve?See Answer
• Q13: 10. The best explanations are the ones that do the best according to thecriteria of adequacy. The criteria of adequacy consist of 5 criterion A. Testability B. Fruitfulness C. Scope D. Simplicity E. ConservatismЕ. Explain in your own words what each of these is. Section V: Judging Scientific TheoriesSee Answer
• Q14: Inferences to the best explanation are inductive inferences. State what an inference to the best explanation is.State why an inference to the best explanation is an inductive inference.See Answer
• Q15: 4. It is false that some Spartans are cowards. So, no Spartans arecowards.See Answer
• Q16: 1. For each of the following statements, construct the converse and state whether the converse is equivalent or not to the original statement. a. All Athenians are Greeks/.b. No Athenians are Greeks/.c. Some Athenians are Greeks./d. Some Athenians are not Greeks.See Answer
• Q17: Assuming "Some Spartans are Greeks" is true, what can be inferred aboutthe truth or fa lsity of the following? True, false, or undetermined? a. All Spartans are Greeks. b. No Spartans are Greeks. a. All Spartans are Greeks.b. No Spartans a re Greeks.c. Some Spartans are not Greeks.See Answer
• Q18: 2. How does Runzo define "meta-ethics" (and is that consistent with how other writers have used that term)?definition, compare and contrast the metaphysics of Judaism with that of Hinduism and with that of Buddhism, and show in each case how the metaphysics of the religion shapes the answer to the question "why does it matter to try to be moral?" Explain what the moral point of view is, according to Runzo, and state what motives are offered by Buddhism, Hinduism and Judaism for taking the moral point of view. In view of the differences both among the world religions and also with secular points of view, do you think there can be a universal ethic of what is right and wrong? Why or why not?In light of thatSee Answer
• Q19: 5. It is false that some Spartans are poets. So it is false that allSpartansare poets.See Answer
• Q20: | All chariot racers are musicians. Some chariot racers are soldiers. There-R.M.Sfore, some musicians are soldiers. 3. All philosophers are lovers of truth. No lovers of truth are closed-minded people. Thus, no philosophers are closed-minded people. All goats are cute. All small mammals are cute. So all small mammals areG,M, Cgoats. Some musicians åre not poets. All musicians are happy persons. Therefore,some happy persons are not poets. No soldiers are rich. No rich persons are poets. So no soldiers are poets. No logicians are musicians. All musicians are artists. Consequently, no art-ists are logicians. Some politicians are idealistic persons. No idealistic persons are scientists.So some scientists are not politicians. P. TS . No scientists are poets. Some scientists are logicians. Therefore, some logi-cians are not poets. 10.) Some actors are sculptors. Some poets are not actors. So some poets are not sculptors 11. No A are B. All Cafe A. So no Care B/.(12, All A are B. All A are C. So some C are B/.13. Some A åre B. All C are B. So some C are A/.All A are B. No B are C. Therefore, some C are A/.15. All A are B. All A are C. Thus, all C are B./All A are B, because all A are Cand all B are C.17. No A are B. Therefore, some Care B, because no A are C.Some A are B. Some A are C. So some B are C.19. Some Arare not B, because some A are not C, and all Care B.28 No A are B, so no C are A because all B are C.21. All M are P. No Sare M. So no S are P.See Answer

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