A 2-in steel plate and a 1-in cast-iron plate are compressed with one bolt, one ½ N American Standard plain washer under the head of the bolt, another identical washer under the nut, and one nut. The bolt is ½ in – 13UNC. Determine: (a)a suitable length for the bolt, rounded up to the nearest 4 in; (b) the bolt stiffness; (c) the stiffness of the members.

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