Transportation Engineering

Questions & Answers

Problem 1 You are given the following information for 20 Office buildings located in downtown Brooklyn. (Refer to table below). Using Excel estimate the following: 1. Average office building space (in sq. ft.). (1/10 pts) 2. Average number of employees per building. (1/10 pts) 3. Total number of person-trips which use auto mode (assuming 15% are auto users). Note: Each employee makes two trips per day. (1/10 pts) 4. Total number of person-trips which use bus mode (assuming 15% are bus users). (1/10 pts) 5. Total number of person-trips which use the subway mode (assuming 60% are subway users). (1/10 pts) 6. Total number of person-trips which use the rail mode (LIRR) (assuming are 10% rail users). (1/10 pts) 7. Vehicle-trips per building (auto + bus) assuming auto occupancy of 1.25 persons/auto and a bus occupancy of 40 persons/bus. (1/10 pts) 8. Plot a scatter chart of office building space (sq. ft.) on X-axis vs. total number of vehicle-trips on Y-axis. (1/10 pts) 9. Calculate a best-fit linear regression equation and graph/trendline which can be used to estimate future planned developments of this type. Make sure to fit a model whose y-intercept is zero (i.e., when size of building is zero the vehicle-trips should also be zero. (1/10 pts) 10.Estimate the number of vehicle-trips for a planned office building of 280,000 sq.ft. using the generated regression equation. (1/10 pts)

Problem 2 Speed data collected on an urban roadway yielded a standard deviation in speeds of ± 5.1 mi/h.

Problem 3 An engineer wishing to determine whether there is a statistically significant difference between the average speed of passenger cars and that of large trucks on a section of highway, collected the data shown below. Determine whether the engineer can conclude that the average speed of large trucks is the same as that for passenger cars. In other words, is the average speed of the large trucks significantly different than the average speed of the passenger cars? (0.50 pts) You must show your work. (0.50 pts)

Problem 4 Define (0.50 pts) the following terms and give examples of how they are used (0.50 pts).

Problem 5

Problem 6 Using the speed data provided below determine the following:

3. [30pt] Two observers recorded the vehicle arrival times at their respective locations (which are 20 ft apart) as follows: 1). [5pt] Compute time mean speed, and space mean speed for the time window [0, 30sec] 2). [5pt] Compute the average time headway and flow rates at location 1 and 2 respectively for the time window [0, 30sec]. Do they observe the inverse relation? 3). [15pt] Plot the cumulative vehicle counts vs time for both locations for the time window [0, 30sec] (on the same graph). What would be the total travel time of the observed vehicles? Can you generalize your calculations using cumulative plots? 4). [5pt] What happens to the cumulative count diagram when vehicle 5's arrival time t2 is 21sec? Can we still use the cumulative count diagram at the two locations to obtain vehicle 5's travel time? Why?

Problem 1

Problem 2

Problem 3 Define the following trip assignment methodologies: (a) All-or-Nothing Trip Assignment (b) Capacity Restraint Trip Assignment

2.0 PROJECT DESCRIPTION The project site is in the campus area where the capacity involves the first year capacity that starts in the fall of 2018 that anticipates approximately 525 students to be enrolled in the first Phase of the university. In addition, 230 students are expected in the next phase, which makes the total enrolment to be 755. In addition, the project is on the new pre-K through 8th-grade charter school building that is located within the Douglas Country School District. The design will be built on Meadows Filing 20, which is at the corner of District Rock Ave and Freelark St. The project is based on proposing the construction of a drug store, office spaces, traffic control systems, retail store, and other facilities that can be used for students' convenience. The roads and pathways are designed to ease traffic flow within the area, which will help in flitting access to different areas and effectiveness of moving from one point to the other. The offices, facilities, and other project requirements will be developed based on accessibility and the need of the students. The changes in design and improvement of the road systems, pathways, and control roads, in general, will have a great impact on improving the general flow of traffic in the region.

1.A new sports car has a drag coefficient of 0.30 and a frontal area of 21 ft2, and is traveling at 110 mi/h. How much power is required to overcome aerodynamic drag if ρ = 0.002378 slugs/ft3? A. 84.4 ft-lb/s B. 35.4 ft-lb/s C. 57.2 ft-lb/s D. 161.3 ft-lb/s

2.An equal-tangent vertical curve is designed for 65 mi/h. The initial grade is + 3.4% and the final grade is negative. What is the elevation difference between the PVC and the high point of the curve? A. 38.1 ft B. 22.3 ft C. 20.4 ft D. 11.2 ft

3.An equal-tangent sag vertical curve is designed with the PVC at station 109 + 00 and elevation 950 ft, the PVI at station 110 + 77 and elevation 947.34 ft, and the low point at station 110 + 50. Determine the design speed of the curve. A. 50 mi/h B. 96 mi/h C. 99.8 mi/h D. 53 mi/h

A crest and sag curve connect a 0% west highway segment (left) with a +2% east highway segment(right). The 0% west highway segment is at a higher elevation than the start of the +2% east highway segment.

5.A new interstate highway is being built with a design speed of 70 mi/h. For one of the horizontal curves, the radius (measured to the innermost vehicle path) is tentatively planned as 2500 ft. What. rate of superelevation is required for this curve? A.0.031 ft/ft or 3.1% B.0.034 ft/ft or 3.4% C.0.042 ft/ft or 4.2% D.0.035 ft/ft or 3.5%

6.The radius of a simple curve is twice its tangent distance. What is the angle of intersection? A. 51°  B. 53°  C. 49°  D. 47° 

Study on Video Cameras in Transportation Engineering Studies on crashes before and after getting traffic cameras Benifit vs cost analysys on this topic Major Purposes of using traffic cameras like traffic management and law enforcement Also advantages and disadvantages of using traffic cameras. Case study involving traffic cameras in AL, USA from ALDOT website Literature review from Traffic Research Board(TRB) and TRID

1. Balance productions and attractions based on the data contained in Tables 1 and 2. Also, use the same weighed averages as well as the same population and employment growth factors as the ones used for the in-class example problem. You can use the equations shown below, from the Trip Generation handout, to calculate your zone attractions by trip purpose. (30 Points)

2. A group of transportation planners are interested in developing a regression model that depicts the relationship between the number of autos in a household and the number of auto trips produced by that household on a daily basis. Based on the data contained in Table 3, answer the questions as follows: 2.1. Develop a regression model using the Microsoft Office Excel Program. Copy the output from Excel and paste on your paper to show your work. (10 Points) 2.2. What does the coefficient "₁" (i.e., the slope) suggest? That is, interpret "₁". (10 Points) 2.3. Is the R² from the model high or low? What does this suggest? (10 Points)

3.1. Consider that the rates shown in Table 4 refer to the total home-based non-work trip rates. The rates are given as trips per household per day. Then, how many home-based non-work trip rate and home-based work trip rate categories are there? (10 Points) 3.2. If the transportation planning group wanted to add one more variable (household income) to Table 4 and segregate this variable into 3 levels, how many different home-based non-work trip rates would result? (5 Points) 3.3. Suppose Table 5 presents the zone's expected suburban household composition in 3 years from now. Using also the cross-classification table represented by Table 4, estimate the total number of daily home-based non-work trips that the zone will produce during a typical target-year day. (10 Points) 3.4. Determine the number of expected home-based non-work trips that 4-person, single vehicle households will produce in a high-density zone? (10 Points) 3.5. Suppose the provision of public transportation system is poor in the zone from which the data in Table 5 came. Based on the distribution of the data shown in Table 5, would you expect this zone to be a low- or high-income zone? Justify your answer. (5 Points)

1. Introduction 200-300 words In the introduction, explain the problem statement and how would your project be useful. Also, present the applications of your project. You should discuss as well the importance of intersections in transportation systems and networks. The introduction should talk in general about the report, including the structure of the report. The introduction should include at least a sentence about each section. The objective of the report should be very clear in the Introduction. 2. Design Overview Define the problem Identify all the design requirements and define the design strategy Identify all the design constraints 3. Background Research Your background research should cover the following points: Definition of a roadway, pavement and types Advantages vs disadvantages of different types of pavement Latest studies of the pavement design Different shapes of failures in pavements Causes Pavement Failure If you are using any reference in the background research, you must add it to the list of references at the end of the report. 4. Studying of the Selected Roads Determination of the roads Analyzing the current geometry of the roads Determination of the layers for roads Determination of traffic parameters of the roads

1. Ministry of Transportation asked your team to carry out the Traffic Assignment using the given vehicle trips (Table 1) and highway network (Figure 1). Try to find minimum paths for every zone pairs and assign the traffic using the "All-or-Nothing" method.

2. Peak-hour traffic demand between an origin-destination pair is initially 3,500 vehicles. The two routes connecting the pair have performance functions t₁ = 2 + 3 (x₁/c₁) and t₂ = 4 + 2 (x2/c₂), where the t's are travel times in minutes, the x's are the peak-hour traffic volumes expressed in thousands, and the c's are the peak-hour route capacities expressed in thousands of vehicles per hour. Initially, the capacities of routes 1 and 2 are 2,500 and 4,000 xeh/h. respectively. A reconstruction project reduces capacity on route 2 to 2,000 yeh/h. Assuming user equilibrium before and during reconstruction, what reduction in total peak-hour origin-destination traffic flow is needed to ensure that total travel times (summation of all Xata, where a denotes route) during reconstruction are equal to those before reconstruction?

Data was collected from an observation station on GA-400, a toll road just north of Atlanta. The traffic flow at this location is illustrated in the figure on the following page. The orange observations on the figure represent the field observations and the curve (in blue) represents a fitted equilibrium model. a) Label and determine the following: free-flow speed, jam density, capacity, optimal density, and optimal speed. b) Use the estimated free-flow speed and jam density to construct Greenshield's model: i. Write the mathematical equation of the model and derive the other two pairwise relationships. ii. Draw the corresponding curves implied by Greenshield's model. You may draw on top of the existing plots or create new ones. iii. Compute capacity, optimal density, and optimal speed according to Greenshield's model. iv. Check the computed capacity against the capacity on the curves that you draw and determine if they match. c) Comment on how the two models compare in terms of fitting the empirical data. Based on the notes, can you determine the model represented in blue?

Speeds of (in mi/hr) 46, 54, 52, 41, and 60 are obtained from a video image processing system. Describe what type of sensor this is and why. If you are asked to determine space- mean speed, how would you do it? Apply the method you describe and report space-mean speed.

Consider the Greenberg traffic flow model given by: a) Describe the speed-flow and flow-density relationships

TERM PROJECT (FALL 2022) CIVL 330 – TRANSPORTATION ENGINEERING Due Date: 23/11/2022 by midnight The purpose of this project is to engage students in an application of the 4-step urban travel demand forecasting process. This project will not only engage students in a group work environment but also improve their understanding of forecasting travel demand and planning for the future. This project is vital because it reinforces many of the key elements covered during this course. Each group must do its own independent work. Penalties may be imposed on groups that collaborate on this project. Sharing results, spreadsheets, etc., is not allowed. If you have difficulties, please ask the instructor. Projects submitted after the deadline will NOT be accepted under ANY circumstances.

CE 392 Introduction to Highway Engineering Chapter 1 Garber and Hoel 1-11 Estimate the proportion of your monthly budget that is spent on transportation. 1-14 There are many benefits related to our highway system, but there are also many costs or detrimental effects that have come into focus in recent years. List four major detrimental effects that are directly related to the construction and use of our highway transportation system. 1-15 Cite four statistics that demonstrate the importance of transportation in the United States.

Chapter 2 Garber and Hoel 2-1 How would your typical day be changed without availability of your principal mode of transportation? Consider both personal transportation as well as goods and services that you rely on. 2-3 A bridge has been constructed between the mainland and an island. The total cost (excluding tolls) to travel across the bridge is expressed as C = 50+ 0.5V, where Vis the number of veh/h and C is the cost/vehicle in cents. The demand for travel across the bridge is V=2500-10C. (a) Determine the volume of traffic across the bridge. (b) If a toll of 25 cents is added, what is the volume across the bridge? (c) A tollbooth is to be added, thus reducing the travel time to cross the bridge. The new cost function is C = 50+ 0.2V. Determine the volume of traffic that would cross the bridge. (d) Determine the toll to yield the highest revenue for demand and supply function in part (a) and the associated demand and revenue. 2-4 A toll bridge carries 10,000 veh/day. The current toll is $3.00/vehicle. Studies have shown that for each increase in toll of 50 cents, the traffic volume will decrease by 1000 veh/day. It is desired to increase the toll to a point where revenue will be maximized. (a) Write the expression for travel demand on the bridge related to toll increase and current volume. (b) Determine toll charge to maximize revenues. (c) Determine traffic in veh/day after toll increase. (d) Determine total revenue increase with new toll. 2-5 Consideration is being given to increasing the toll on a bridge now carrying 4500 veh/day. The current toll is $1.25/veh. It has been found from past experience that the daily traffic volume will decrease by 400 veh/day for each 25¢ increase in toll. Therefore, if x is the increase in toll in cents/veh, the volume equation for veh/day is V =4500-400 (x/25), and the new toll/veh would be 7 = 125 + x. In order to maximize revenues, what would the new toll charge be per vehicle, and what would the traffic in veh/day be after the toll increase? 2-7 An individual is planning to take an 800-mile trip between two large cities. Three pos- sibilities exist: air, rail, or auto. The person is willing to pay $25 for every hour saved in making the trip. The trip by air costs $600 and travel time is 8 hours, by rail the cost is $450 and travel time is 16 hours, and by auto the cost is $200 and travel time is 20 hours. (a) Which mode is the best choice? (b) What factors other than cost might influence the decision regarding which mode to use? 2-13 Consult with the U.S. Department of Transportation website and identify the name and location of highways in your state that are included as part of the National Highway System. 2-16 What do the following acronyms mean?

4. Assuming that a driver from Oregon with a visual acuity of 20/20 can read a road sign within his area of vision at a distance of 50 ft for each inch of letter height, prepare a table with required letter heights for signs 100 ft, 500 ft, and 1000 ft for drivers known to have the following acuities, 20/20, 20/40 and 20/70.

3. A driver takes 3.5 s to react to a complex situation. How far does the vehicle travel before the driver initiates a physical response to the situation (i.e., putting his or her foot on the brake)? Plot the results for speeds ranging from 30 to 70 mi/h (in 5-mi/h increments).

(a) How fast does the end of the stopped queue move upstream? (b) When is the queue cleared? (c Did the first vehicle not in the queue pass the intersection (the stop bar) in this green time window (show how you get your answer)? (d) What is the delay to the 3rd vehicle to join the queue? (e) What is the delay to all the vehicles arrived in one cycle?

In the above problem, suppose that there is an initial queue in NB that with jam density of n vehicles at the start of the NB green, and no vehicles arrive to join the queue during the green time window. What is the maximum n such that the last vehicle in the queue can cross the stop bar just before NB yellow starts (we consider the vehicle crossed the stop bar once its rear crossed it)? [Remark: draw the wave lines and vehicle trajectories will help you solve the problem]

(f) Draw all the shock waves on a time-space diagram, and compute their speeds (g) What is the travel speed of vehicles inside the queue formed behind the bottleneck? (h) What is the furthest point the congestion (queue) has reached upstream? (i) When is the congestion dissolved? (j) How many vehicles are being delayed during this morning commute?

DESIGN OF STEEL TRUSS BRIDGE Design scenario: Due to the logistic needs for one of the residential areas in the city, the state department of transportation announced a notice to bidders for the construction of a bridge to carry a centered highway across a valley (see figure 1 for the site configuration). In this notice, the state department of transportation highlighted the following: • The designed bridge should be able to carry its own weight (to include the weight of the reinforced concrete deck), plus the weight of a truck loading equivalent to 350kN. • The state department will only consider designs with a total cost less than 480,000 $. The design cost should include the cost of material, connection, product, and site. • The designed bridge should be a standard abutment bridge • One cable anchorage is allowed. • A medium-strength concrete should be used for the bridge deck. The aim of this project is to: • Analyze and design trusses and frames manually and using engineering software • Apply the basic concepts of mechanics to find solution of practical problems • Develop a systematic approach to problem-solving skills • Construct free-body diagrams • Basic definitions of stress stain, Stress due to axial loading • Work in diverse teams

Traffic for a future roadway is projected to be AADT = 15000 vehicles. Vehicle distribution and the corresponding ESAL factors are given in Table 1. This is a 6-lane highway (3 lanes in each direction) with a directional distribution factor of 50%. 1. Using a growth factor of 3%, estimate traffic in the design lane, in ESALS, for a design life of 30 years. 2. The subgrade soil is a high plasticity clay (CH). The available base and sub base materials have R-Values of 75 and 50, respectively. Design a conventional flexible pavement structure using the 1993 AASHTO method. Clearly state all assumptions made.

Due to improvements in highway ITS assets, the average truck operating speed on a certain interstate freeway increased from 57 to 62 mph. Find the decrease in shipping inventory costs per year for trucks that comprise 30% of the overall traffic stream of 75,500 vpd. On the average, each truck hauls an average of $2.2 million worth of goods daily. Assume an 7% interest rate

The injury crash rate with and without improvement project at a rural two-lane highway is 2.87 and 3.5 per million VMT. Determine the user safety benefit in monetary terms due to reduction in crash rate. Assume average vehicle occupancy=1 and annual VMT is 1.5 and 1.8 millions for before and after improvement scenarios. Unit Cost of incapacitating Injury = 181,276 (2005 $).

Traffic for a future roadway is projected to be AADT = 15000 vehicles. Vehicle distribution and thecorresponding ESAL factors are given in Table 1. 1. Using a growth factor of 3%, estimate traffic in the design lane, in ESALS, for a design life of 30years. 2. The subgrade soil is a high plasticity clay (CH). The available base and sub base materials have R-Values of 75 and 50, respectively. Design a conventional flexible pavement structure using the 1 993 AASH TO method. Clearly state all assumptions made.

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