Biochemistry

Questions & Answers

An experiment was done where a group of subjects exhaled through narrow tubes into a solution of Bromothymol Blue (BTB), after sustained amounts of exercise (running 2 flights of stairs). BTB is an acid base indicator that turns from blue-green to yellow in the presence of an acid. The subjects had the time it took for them to turn the BTB yellow under three conditions: Initial (at rest), after each of their 3 runs (done one after another). The graph that results is below.


551494 - Chemistry and Biochemistry Environmental Disaster Assignment You and your team received a call in the night. There has been a major incident at the ExoChem7 plant in the north of Yorkshire, England. The ExoChem7 plant is a major producer of saturated hydrocarbons using non-conventional methods of production. The ExoChem7 plant covers two sites, each holding various chemical storages (Tank farm 1-1, Tank farm 1-2 and Tank farm 2), see Figure 1 for a site map. It is believed that Tank farm 1-1 and Tank farm 1-2 houses liquids and Tank farm 2 held a gas, these have all been ruptured in the explosion that occurred in Site 2. The plant managers have left the premises and are not providing the investigation team with all of the information as to what was used, made and what were the processes used.


News and Views Assignment • A review article written in the style of Nature's "News and Views". • ntended for the interested non-specialist to inform them of new scientific advances. • Provide a summary of a paper and explain how it fits into the context of its field. • Main findings of the paper form the "News" • The "Views" regard its importance and implications to the field


Refer to the previous question. What is the charge on the amino acid at pH 9.2?


This is a titration curve for which amino acid?


Consider the enzyme-catalyzed reaction AB. You determine experimentally that the maximal initial velocity. Vmax for the amount of enzyme you have added is 50 mM of B appearing per minute. You also determine that the Michaelis constant, K. for this enzyme is 20 mM of A. What concentration of A will give an initial velocity of 25 mM of B appearing per minute?


How would you make 300 mL of a 5.5 mM glucose solution? Show your work.


) Briefly describe what enzymes are and how they facilitate faster rates of reactions.


Calculate the total mmoles and total grams of solute in 14 L of ECF for each of the following solutes: Sodium chloride (NaCl) Calcium chloride (CaCl₂) Magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) Potassium chloride (KCI) ●Potassium phosphate (K3PO4) Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) Sodium phosphate (Na3PO4) Glucose (C6H12O6)


What is the TBW volume, ICF volume, and ECF volume of a 5 lb. male dog? Assume the ICF and ECF proportions are the same as a human. Show your work.


How would you make 250 mL of a 0.9% (w/v) NaCl solution? Show your work.


21.) Below is a basic Lineweaver-Burk plot of a simple enzyme system w/ and without inhibitors at an enzyme concentration of 50 uM. Answer parts A-C. A.) Determine the Km, Vmax and kcat of the uninhibited enzyme (16 pts). Indicate whether each inhibitor displays competitive, uncompetitive or mixed inhibition. .) Determine the apparent VmaxªPP & KmªPP values for the enzyme in the presence of Inhibitor 1. ) If Inhibitor 1 is at a concentration of 40 uM, determine the Kı value for the inhibitor. ( Determine the appropriate K₁ and/or Kı' values for inhibitors 1 & 3 at concentrations of 40uM.


What is the TBW volume and ECF volume for a 70 kg male? Show your work.


15.) A certain ligand binding protein has two different conformations (A & B) whose affinities for the ligand are described by the binding isotherms below. Use the binding isotherms to estimate the dissociation constant,Kò for each protein conformation (6 pts).


Match the following reaction mechanisms with the correct class of enzymes (6 pts).


0.9% (w/v) NaCl is sometimes referred to as normal saline (an isotonic solution). Express normal saline in molarity (mol/L). Show your work.


14.) In your own words briefly describe how the presence of 2,3-bisphosphogylcerate affects the binding affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen (3 pts). Bonus (1 pt) Is this effect an example of a positive or negative allosteric effectors?


Clinically, normal postprandial (after eating) blood glucose is 70-145 mg/dL. Express this range in mM (molarity). Show your work.


Convert 100 mg/dL glucose to mmoles/liter glucose. Show your work. How does this value compare to the concentration of glucose in normal ECF from the table in Lab 1.


You dissolve 5 g KCI in a total volume of 200 mL. What is the final [KCI]? Show your work. a. Express [KCI] in % (w/v). b. Express [KCI] in molarity (mol/L).


At what ligand concentration does protein conformation B from above reach 80% saturation?


19.) Michaelis-Menten kinetics is a useful tool for approximating the behavior of many simple one-substrateenzyme reaction systems, such as that shown here: \mathrm{E}+\mathrm{S} \underset{k_{-1}}{\stackrel{k_{1}}{\rightleftharpoons}} \mathrm{ES} \underset{k_{-2}}{\stackrel{k_{2}}{\rightleftharpoons}} \mathrm{E}+\mathrm{P} From this reaction series, write rate equations describing the change in concentrations of the enzyme-substratecomplex (ES; d[ES]/dt = ?) and the product (P) formed (the reaction velocity; v = d[P]/dt = ?). (6 pts) Next, list the two key assumptions made in Michaelis-Menten model that allow for the derivation of the Michaelis-Menten equation (shown below) (6 pts)


The Delta Plus variant of SARS-CoV-2 has been found to have an amino acid substitution in the spike protein known as K417N. The spike protein is considered to be how the viral particle attaches to the host cell for infection. Based on your knowledge of amino acid side chain chemistry, speculate how this amino acid substitution (i.e. N replaces K at position 417) could lead to an altered potentially improved interaction with the host protein receptor. Your answer should include the following:


Using evidence from the scientific literature (epidemiological and metabolic studies), assess the association between glycaemicindex/glycamic load of diets and the prevalence of type 2 diabetes.4. Remember to explain associations using relevant biological mechanism.


Critically evaluate the link between diet and the risk of cardiovascular disease. In your answer you should focus on: (i)The effect that diet has on blood plasma lipoprotein concentration. (ii)c.The connection between blood plasma concentration and cardiometabolic risk (ii)Explanation of relevant biochemical processes at play.


5.Evaluate the association between ethanol consumption and poor healthout comes. In your answer use appropriate references from epidemiological studies. Remember to explain the associations using the knowledge of the impact that catabolism (oxidation) of ethanol has on relevant metabolic(25 marks)processes in human body.


Suppose that the following sequence describes the reactions of two different substrates catalyzed by one enzyme:Enzyme Kinetics 2-43 The initial concentration of substrates, products, and enzyme are: Cs₁ = 0.1mol/L, Cs₂ = 0.3mol/L, Cp₁ = Cp₂ = 0, Ces₁ = Ces₂ = 0,and C = 0.05mol/L. Show the changes of Cs₁ Cs2 ,Ces1 Ces2,Cp1, and Cp₂ with respect to time by solving the simultaneous differential equations.


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